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Kannabisz vagy drog? Szóljanak a tények!

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A kannabisz a leggyakrabban használt illegális drog, egyes becslések szerint 190-250 millió ember használja világszerte. Ez megfelelően komoly szám ahhoz, hogy tájékozott civilizált emberekként elgondolkozzunk végre azon, hogy tényleg értelmes-e ennyi embert bűnözőként kezelni!

A drogokat azért kezelik a bűnelkövetéssel egy kalap alatt, mert feltételezhetően társadalmi veszélyt jelentenek és szívesen, de az esetek túlnyomó többségében alaptalanul, társítják olyan egyéb erőszakos bűntények elkövetésével, mint a rablás és bántalmazás. A tiltások bevezetése óta az illegális anyagok között kimagasló helyen kezelik a kannabiszt, mivel azt kapudrognak tekintik. A társadalmi hatás széles körben vitatott, hiszen szinte lehetetlen objektíven megmondani mi az igazság, ugyanis jelenleg kizárólag olyan szempontok alapján tudjuk megközelíteni a kérdést, ahol a kábítószerek már évtizedek óta kriminalizálva vannak. Fogalmunk sincs arról, milyen lenne a világ ahol legális a kannabisz, nem úgy mint az alkohol esetében, ugyanakkor a kannabiszt kapudrognak beállító elméletet egyre több tanulmány cáfolja.

Igaz ugyan, hogy a drogokat fogyasztók többsége próbálta már a kannabiszt, ugyanakkor az is igaz, hogy a kannabiszt fogyasztók többsége nem folytatja más, "keményebb" drogokkal. Nem felcserélendő az ok és az okozat! Így kizárható a kannabisz kapudrogként történő megbélyegzése, főleg mivel az is igaz, hogy egyéb drogokhoz nyúlók többsége az alkoholhoz nyúlt előbb mint a kannabiszhoz. A kannabiszt ellenzők és a kapudrog hipotézist támogatók szeretik viszont úgy elemezni az adatokat és az eseteket, hogy a tiltott listás anyagokat veszik csak számításba és ilyenkor a kannabisz az, ami az első körben kipróbált anyagok közt tündököl. Ez a hozzáállás viszont minden csak nem objektív!

Fontos megjegyezni, hogy a biológiai mechanizmusokon kívül más tényezők is, mint például az ember társadalmi helyzete és környezete, örökölt hajlamai is kritikusak a problémás kábítószer-használat kockázata szempontjából. A kapudrog hipotézis sokkal objektívebb alternatívája, hogy a drogfogyasztás szempontjából kiszolgáltatottabb emberek egyszerűen nagyobb valószínűséggel kezdenek könnyen hozzáférhető anyagokkal, mint például a kannabisz, dohány vagy alkohol, és a későbbi társadalmi interakcióik által másokkal, akik szintén szereket fogyasztanak, nő annak az esélye, hogy más szereket is kipróbálnak.

Álláspontunk, hogy a kannabisz törvénykezésnek bizonyítékokon kell alapulnia. Éppen ezért összegyűjtöttük azokat a releváns, szakértők által felülvizsgált tanulmányokat, amelyek rávilágítanak a kannabisz használatának, üldözésének és szabályozásának egészségügyi, társadalmi és gazdasági hatásaira. Igyekeztünk őket olyan kategóriákba szedni amilyen aggályok gyakran felmerülnek az ellenzők csoportjaiban, méghozzá releváns, olyan országokból származó tanulmányok ezek, ahol már több éve legális a kannabisz.

Előre felhívjuk mindenki figyelmét, hogy a kannabisz nem mindenkinek való! Vannak emberek szép számmal rejtett személyiségi hibákkal, rejtett pszichés betegségekkel, amiket a kannabisz könnyen felszínre hozhat, vagy felerősíthet, ugyanakkor, csak mert a gépjármű vezetés nem való mindenkinek nem kriminalizálhatunk mindenkit, aki gépjárművet szeretne vezetni (az alkoholról és számos ma is legálisan kapható gyógyszerről nem is beszélve)!

Amennyiben olyan emberekkel, szervezetekkel kerülsz vitákba, ahol az ilyen kérdéseket vitatják, használd ezt az oldal védekezésként. Azért hoztuk létre. Osszad ahol tudod, hogy egyre több ember lássa tisztán a valóságot. Az oldalt folyamatosan frissítjük!
A legális kannabisz tényleges hatásai:
A felnőttkori kannabisz használat szabályozásának bevezetése nem jár együtt a kannabisz serdülők általi használatának jelentős emelkedésével:

* National Center for Education Statistics, Marijuana Use and Illegal Drug Availability, May 2021
* Trends in youth cannabis use across cannabis legalization: Data from the COMPASS prospective cohort study, Preventive Medicine Reports, 2021
* Recreational marijuana legalization and adolescent use of marijuana, tobacco, alcohol. Journal of Adolescent Health, 2020
* Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Prescription Opioid Misuse and Use of Alcohol and Other Substances Among High School Students — Youth Risk Behavior Survey, United States, 2019, 2020
* Marijuana legalization and prevalence among adolescents, American Journal of Public Health, 2020
* National Institutes on Drug Abuse, December 17, 2018 press release
* Colorado Division of Criminal Justice, Impacts of Marijuana Legalization in Colorado, 2018
* Adolescent marijuana use, marijuana-related perceptions, and use of other substances before and after initiation of retail marijuana sales in Colorado (2013-2015), Prevention Science, 2018
* Marijuana use and related health care encounters in Colorado before and after retail legalization, International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 2018
* “Colorado teen use hasn’t spiked,” Westword, June 21, 2018
* Comments from Colorado Gov. John Hickenlooper, April 9, 2018
* Comments from Larry Wolk, Chief Medical Officer of the Colorado Department of Public Health, October 23, 2017
* Adolescent marijuana use and perceived ease of access before and after recreational marijuana implementation in Colorado, Substance Use & Misuse, 2017
* Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Monitoring Health Concerns Related to Marijuana in Colorado, 2017
* Lessons learned after three years of legalized, recreational marijuana: The Colorado experience, Preventive Medicine, 2017
* Marijuana use among young people in an era of policy change: what does recent evidence tell us?, The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 2016
* Oregon Health Authority, Marijuana use, attitudes and health effects in Oregon, 2016
* Adolescents’ Ease of Access to Marijuana Before and After Legalization of Marijuana in Washington State, 2016
* Influence of legal status on the uptake of cannabis in young people, Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 2016

A kannabisz kereskedelmi egységek alapítása nincs összefüggésben a bűncselekmények fellendülésével:

* Not in my backyard? Not so fast. The effect of marijuana legalization on neighborhood crime, Regional Science and Urban Economics, 2019
* Marijuana legalization and crime clearance rates: Testing proponent assertions in Colorado and Washington state, Police Quarterly, 2018
* Going to pot: The impact of dispensary closures on crime. Journal of Urban Economics, 2017
* Exploring the ecological association between crime and medical marijuana dispensaries, Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 2012

Az orvosi kannabiszhoz való hozzáférésről szóló törvénykezések nincsenek összefüggésben a forgalom biztonságára gyakorolt káros hatásokkal:

* An examination of relationships between cannabis legalization and fatal motor vehicle and pedestrian-involved crashes, Traffic Injury Prevention, 2020
* Marijuana medicalization and motor vehicle fatalities: A synthetic control group approach, Journal of Experimental Criminology, 2018.
* US Traffic Fatalities, 1985-2014, and Their Relationship to Medical Marijuana Laws, Journal of the American Public Health Association, 2016
* State medical marijuana laws and the prevalence of opioids detected among fatally injured drivers, American Journal of Public Health, 2016

A felnőttek kannabisz fogyasztását lehetővé tevő törvények általában kevés változást okoztak a közlekedésbiztonság terén, habár a legújabb tanulmányok kevésbé konzisztens eredményeket hoztak:

* Marijuana legalization and rates of crashing under the influence of tetrahydrocannabinol and alcohol, The American Surgeon, 2021
* Association of recreational cannabis laws in Colorado and Washington state with changes in traffic fatalities, 2005-2017, JAMA Internal Medicine, 2020
* Fatal crashes in the 5 years after recreational marijuana legalization in Colorado and Washington, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2019
* Early Evidence on Recreational Marijuana Legalization and Traffic Fatalities, National Bureau of Economic Research, 2018
* MyNews4.com. “Nevada traffic deaths dropped 10 percent in first year of recreational marijuana,” June 29, 2018
* Comments from Larry Wolk, Chief Medical Officer of the Colorado Department of Public Health, October 23, 2017
* Crash fatality rates after recreational marijuana legalization in Washington and Colorado, The American Journal of Public Health, 2017
* The Marijuana Policy Gap and the Path Forward, Congressional Research Service, 2017
* Marijuana Legalization Hasn’t Increased Traffic Fatalities In Oregon, Oregon Public Broadcasting, March 9, 2017

A kannabisz szabályozása nincs káros hatással a munkahelyi teljesítményre vagy a biztonságra:

* Does marijuana legalization affect workplace capacity? Evidence from workers’ compensation benefits, National Bureau of Economic Research, 2021
* Systemic review of cannabis use and risk of occupational injury, Substance Use and Misuse, 2020
* Medical marijuana and workers’ compensation claiming, Health Economics, 2020
* National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Committee’s Conclusions, 2017
* Economic Self-Sufficiency Policy Research Institute, Marijuana decriminalization and labor market outcomes, 2016
* The Impact of Medical Marijuana Laws on the Labor Supply and Health of Older Adults: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study, National Bureau of Economic Research, 2016
* The effect of medical marijuana on sickness absence. Health Economics, 2016

A kannabisz szabályozása csökkenő alkoholfogyasztással jár:

* Helping settle the marijuana and alcohol debate: Evidence from scanner data. SSRN Working Paper, 2017
* Time.com. “Legal weed is hurting the beer business.” December 6, 2016

A kannabisz szabályozása az adóbevételek növekedésével és a munkahelyteremtéssel jár:

* Marijuana Policy Project, Marijuana Tax Revenue in States that Regulate Marijuana for Adult Use, May 2021
* Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy, “State and local cannabis tax revenue jumps 58%, surpassing $3 billion in 2020,” March 2021
* The Center Square, “Colorado sold more than $187 million in legal marijuana in January,” March 2021
* Leafly.com/Whitney Economics, Jobs Report 2021, February 2021
* Portland Press Herald, “Marijuana has grown to become Maine’s most valuable crop,” December 8, 2020
* Marijuana Business Daily, “U.S. cannabis industry employment estimates: 2019-2024,” July 28, 2020
* “States’ legal cannabis markets see strong growth amid COVID-19 disruptions,” NewFrontierData.com, July 19, 2020
* “Cannabis Jobs Report: Legal cannabis now supports 243,700 full-time American jobs,” Leafly.com, February 7, 2020
* CNBC.com, “Cannabis jobs pay 11% more than the US median salary, and demand is up 76%,” 2019
* “Cannabis, marijuana, weed, pot? Just call it a job machine,” New York Times, April 25, 2019
* New study: How recreational marijuana impacts home values, April 9, 2019
* Leafly.com/Whitney Economics, Cannabis Jobs In America: 2019, March 2019
* Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy, Taxing Cannabis, January 23, 2019
* State of Oregon: Office of Economic Analysis, Oregon Economic and Revenue Forecast, 2018
* The effect of marijuana dispensary openings on housing prices, Contemporary Economic Policy, 2018
* Marijuana Business Daily. “Oregon tax revenue hits record high,” August 28, 2018
* Marijuana Business Daily. “Cannabis industry supports up to 160,000 full-time jobs, with more growth on the horizon.” June 4, 2018
* ZipRecuiter.com, Will cannabis job growth continue to outpace tech job growth?, 2018
* The Economic Effects of the Marijuana Industry in Colorado, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Denver, Oklahoma City, Omaha, 2018
* Nevada marijuana sales surpass $1 million per day in first six months, February 23, 2018
* Leafly.com, Cannabis jobs count: Legal marijuana supports 149,304 Americans, 2017
* Leafly.com, Washington tops $1.1 billion in cannabis sales at 9-month mark,” 2017
* Forbes.com, Nevada’s recreational market hits $38 million, soars past Colorado, December 2017
* Las Vegas Review Journal, Nevada recreational marijuana sales reach $33M in August, 2017
* Contact high: The external effects of retail marijuana establishments on house prices, Real Estate Economics, 2017
* US News and World Report, “Milestoned: Colorado Pot Tax Revenue Surpasses $500M,” 2017
* The effect of legalizing retail marijuana on housing values: Evidence from Colorado, University of Mississippi working paper series, 2016
* Drug Policy Alliance, What We Know About Marijuana Legalization in Colorado, Washington, Alaska, Oregon and Washington, DC, 2016
Az orvosi kannabisz hozzáférésről szóló törvények és a felnőtkori használatra vonatkozó törvények elfogadását követően nem tapasztalható jelentős növekedés a serdülők közt önmaguk által bejelentett kannabiszfogyasztás illetően:

* National Center for Education Statistics, Marijuana Use and Illegal Drug Availability, May 2021
* Medical marijuana laws (MMLs) and dispensary provisions not associated with higher odds of adolescent marijuana or heavy marijuana use: A 46 State Analysis, 1991-2015, Substance Abuse, 2021
* Trends in youth cannabis use across cannabis legalization: Data from the COMPASS prospective cohort study, Preventive Medicine Reports, 2021
* Post-legalization changes in marijuana use in a sample of young California adults, Addictive Behaviors, 2021
* Recreational marijuana legalization and adolescent use of marijuana, tobacco, alcohol. Journal of Adolescent Health, 2020
* Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Prescription Opioid Misuse and Use of Alcohol and Other Substances Among High School Students — Youth Risk Behavior Survey, United States, 2019, 2020
* US Department of Health and Human Services, Key Substance Use and Mental Health Indicators in the United States: Results from the 2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2020
* Marijuana legalization and prevalence among adolescents, American Journal of Public Health, 2020
* Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration, Key Substance Use and Mental Health Indicators in the United States: Results from the 2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2019
* National Institutes on Drug Abuse, December 17, 2018 press release

A fiatalok hozzáférése a kannabiszhoz országosan csökken:

* Trends in perceived access to marijuana among adolescents in the United States: 2002-2015, Journal of Studies of Alcohol and Drugs, 2017
* United States Centers for Disease Control, National Estimates of Marijuana Use and Related Indicators – National Survey on Drug Use and Health, United States, 2002-2014, 2016

A fiatalok problémás kannabiszhasználatának aránya az elmúlt két évtized nagyobb felében csökkent:

* Adolescent treatment admissions for marijuana following recreational legalization in Colorado and Washington
* Declining Prevalence of Marijuana Use Disorders Among Adolescents in the United States, 2002 to 2013
* Recent Trends in the Prevalence of Marijuana Use and Associated Disorders in the United States

Az orvosi kannabisz törvények elfogadása semmilyen téren nincs ok-okozati összefüggésben a fiatalok kannabisz használatával:

* Early evidence of the impact of cannabis legalization on cannabis use, cannabis use disorder, and the use of other substances: Findings from state policy evaluations, The American Journal of Drugs and Alcohol Abuse, 2019
* A quasi-experimental evaluation of marijuana policies and youth marijuana use, The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 2019
* Has the legalisation of medical and recreational cannabis use in the USA affected the prevalence of cannabis use and cannabis use disorders? Current Addiction Reports
* Medical marijuana laws and adolescent marijuana use in the United States: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Addiction, 2018
* Medical marijuana availability, price, and product variety, and adolescent’s marijuana use, Journal of Adolescent Health, 2018
* U.S. epidemiology of cannabis use and associated problems, Neuropsychopharmacology, 2017
* Medical marijuana laws and adolescent use of marijuana and other substances: Alcohol, cigarettes, prescription drugs, and other illicit drugs. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2017
* Impact of medical marijuana laws on state-level marijuana use by age and gender, 2004-2013, Prevention Science, 2017
* Cannabis use and cannabis use disorders among youth in the United States, 2002-2014, Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 2017
* Loose regulation of medical marijuana programs associated with higher rates of adult marijuana use but not cannabis use disorder, Addiction, 2017
* The design of medical marijuana laws and adolescent use and heavy use of marijuana: Analysis of 45 states from 1991 to 2011, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2017
* State-level medical marijuana laws, marijuana use and perceived availability of marijuana among the general U.S. population, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2016
* Prevalence of marijuana use does not differentially increase among youth after states pass medical marijuana laws: Commentary on and reanalysis of US National Survey on Drug Use in Households data 2002-2011, International Journal on Drug Policy, 2016
* Medical marijuana laws and adolescent marijuana use in the USA from 1991 to 2014: results from annual, repeated cross-sectional surveys, Lancet Psychiatry, 2015
* The Impact of State Medical Marijuana Legislation on Adolescent Marijuana Use, Journal of Adolescent Health, 2014

A felnőtkori használatra vonatkozó törvények elfogadása semmilyen téren nincs ok-okozati összefüggésben a fiatalok kannabisz használatával:

* Association of marijuana laws with teen marijuana use: New estimates form the Youth Risk Behavior surveys, JAMA Pediatrics, 2019
* Has cannabis use among youth increased after changes in its legal status? A commentary on use of Monitoring the Future for analysis of changes in state cannabis laws, Preventive Medicine, 2019
* Trends and characteristics in marijuana use among public school students – King County, Washington, 2004-2016, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2019
* Association of marijuana laws with teen marijuana use. JAMA Pediatrics, 2019
* Colorado Division of Criminal Justice, Impacts of Marijuana Legalization in Colorado, 2018
* Prevalence of cannabis use in youths after legalization in Washington state, JAMA Pediatrics, 2018
* Adolescent marijuana use, marijuana-related perceptions, and use of other substances before and after initiation of retail marijuana sales in Colorado (2013-2015), Prevention Science, 2018
* Marijuana use and related health care encounters in Colorado before and after retail legalization, International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 2018
* “Colorado teen use hasn’t spiked,” Westword, June 21, 2018
* Comments from Colorado Gov. John Hickenlooper, April 9, 2018
* Comments from Larry Wolk, Chief Medical Officer of the Colorado Department of Public Health, October 23, 2017
* Washington State Institute for Public policy, I-502 Evaluation and Cost-Benefit Analysis, 2017
* “Following marijuana legalization, teen drug use is down in Colorado,” Washington Post, 2017
* Adolescent marijuana use and perceived ease of access before and after recreational marijuana implementation in Colorado, Substance Use & Misuse, 2017
* Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Monitoring Health Concerns Related to Marijuana in Colorado, 2017
* Lessons learned after three years of legalized, recreational marijuana: The Colorado experience, Preventive Medicine, 2017
* Marijuana use among young people in an era of policy change: what does recent evidence tell us?, The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 2016
* Oregon Health Authority, Marijuana use, attitudes and health effects in Oregon, 2016
* Adolescents’ Ease of Access to Marijuana Before and After Legalization of Marijuana in Washington State, 2016
* Influence of legal status on the uptake of cannabis in young people, Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 2016
A kannabiszhoz való hozzáférés az opioidok használatának és a visszaélések, az opioidokkal kapcsolatos kórházi ápolások, az opioidokkal összefüggő közlekedési halálesetek, az opioidokkal kapcsolatos kábítószer-kezelések és az opioidok okozta túladagolásos halálozások csökkenésével van összefüggésben:

* Opioid use in medical cannabis authorization adult patients from 2013 to 2018: Alberta, Canada, BMC Public Health, 2021
* Cannabis use and nonfatal opioid overdose among patients enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment, Substance Use & Misuse, 2021
* Association between county level cannabis dispensary counts and opioid related mortality rates in the United States: panel data study, BMJ, 2021
* Opioid-prescribing in Canada following the legalization of cannabis: A clinical and economic time-series analysis, Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, 2021
* Patient-reported outcomes in those consuming medical cannabis: a prospective longitudinal observational study in chronic pain patients, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, 2021
* Prescribed medical cannabis in women with gynecologic malignancies: A single-institution survey-based study, Gynecologic Oncology Reports, 2020
* Cannabis significantly reduces the use of prescription opioids and improves quality of life in authorized patients: Results of a large prospective study, Pain Medicine, 2020
* A survey on the effect that medical cannabis has on prescription opioid medication usage for the treatment of chronic pain at three medical cannabis practices, Cureus, 2020
* Prescribed medical cannabis in women with gynecologic malignancies: A single-institution survey-based study, Gynecologic Oncology Reports, 2020
* Medical cannabis treatment for chronic pain: Outcomes and prediction of response, European Journal of Pain, 2020
* Frequent cannabis use and cessation of injection of opioids, Vancouver, Canada, 2005-2018, American Journal of Public Health, 2020
* Medical cannabis for the reduction of opioid dosage in the treatment of non-cancer chronic pain: a systematic review, Systematic Reviews, 2020
* Medical cannabis for the management of pain and quality of life in chronic pain patients: A prospective observational study, Pain Medicine, 2020
* State medical cannabis laws associated with reduction in opioid prescriptions by orthopedic surgeons in Medicare Part D cohort, Journal of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, 2020
* Prescription opioid distribution after the legalization of recreational marijuana in Colorado, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2020
* Evaluating the co-use of opioids and cannabis for pain among current users using hypothetical purchase tasks, Journal of Psychopharmacology, 2020
* The efficacy of medical marijuana in the treatment of cancer-related pain, Journal of Palliative Medicine, 2020
* Matched pilot study examining cannabis-based dronabinol for acute pain following traumatic injury, Trauma Surgery & Acute Care, 2020
* The impact of cannabis access laws on opioid prescribing, Journal of Health Economics, 2019
* Frequency of cannabis and illicit opioid use among people who use drugs and report chronic pain: A longitudinal analysis, PLOS One
* “The effects of cannabis laws on opioid use, International Journal of Drug Policy, 2019
* Evaluation of the effects of CBD hemp extract on opioid use and quality of life indicators in chronic pain patients: a prospective cohort study, Postgraduate Medicine, 2019
* Substitution of marijuana for opioids in a national survey of US adults, PLOS One
* Medical cannabis: Effects on opioid and benzodiazepines requirements for pain control, The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 2019
* Reduced urinary opioid levels from pain management patients associated with marijuana use, Pain Management, 2019
* Association between cannabis laws and opioid prescriptions among privately insured adults in the US, Preventive Medicine, 2019
* Impact of medical marijuana legalization on opioid use, chronic opioid use, and high risk opioid use, Journal of General Internal Medicine, 2019
* Medical marijuana laws and their effect on opioid-related morality, Economics Bulletin, 2019
* Opioid dose reduction and pain control with medical cannabis, Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2018
* The impact of cannabis access laws on opioid prescribing, University of Alabama Legal Studies Research Paper No. 3266629, 2018
* Perspectives on cannabis as a substitute for opioid analgesics, Pain Management, 2019
* Medical cannabis legalization and opioid prescriptions: Evidence of US Medicaid enrollees during 1993-2014, Addiction, 2018
* The effect of medical cannabis dispensaries on opioid and heroin overdose mortality, SSRN white paper, 2018
* Patterns of medicinal cannabis use, strain analysis, and substitution effect among patients with migraine, headache, arthritis, and chronic pain in a medicinal cannabis cohort, The Journal of Headache and Pain, 2018
* Recreational marijuana legalization and prescription opioids received by Medicaid enrollees, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2018
* Self-reported effectiveness and safety of Trokie lozenges: A standardized formulation for the buccal delivery of cannabis extracts, Frontiers in Neuroscience, 2018
* Preliminary data from the largest national longitudinal medical cannabis patient study in Canada, May 1, 2018
* Association of medical and adult-use marijuana laws with opioid prescribing for Medicaid enrollees, JAMA Internal Medicine, 2018
* Minnesota Department of Health, Intractable Pain Patients in the Minnesota Medical Cannabis Program: Experience of Enrollees During the First Five Months, 2018
* Older Adults’ Use of Medical Marijuana for Chronic Pain: A Multisite Community-Based Survey, Data presented at the 2018 annual meeting of the American Geriatrics Society, May 2018
* Do medical marijuana laws reduce addictions and deaths related to pain killers? Journal of Health Economics, 2018
* Epidemiological characteristics, safety and efficacy of medical cannabis in the elderly, European Journal of Internal Medicine, 2018
* Recreational cannabis legalization and opioid-related deaths in Colorado, 2000-2015, American Journal of Public Health, 2017
* Association between medical cannabis and prescription opioid use in chronic pain patients: A preliminary cohort study, PLOS One, 2017
* The effects of marijuana dispensaries on adverse opioid outcomes. SSRN Working Paper, 2017
* Medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and opioid pain reliever, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2017
* The use of cannabis in response to the opioid crisis: A review of the literature, Nursing Outlook, 2017
* Perceptions of the use of medical marijuana in the treatment of pain following musculoskeletal trauma, Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 2017
* State medical marijuana laws and the prevalence of opioids detected among fatally injured drivers, American Journal of Public Health, 2016
* A pilot study assessing the impact of medical marijuana on executive function, Frontiers in Pharmacology, 2016
* Medical Cannabis Use Is Associated With Decreased Opiate Medication Use in a Retrospective Cross-Sectional Survey of Patients With Chronic Pain, Journal of Pain, 2016
* The Effect of Medicinal Cannabis on Pain and Quality-of-Life Outcomes in Chronic Pain: A Prospective Open-label Study, The Clinical Journal of Pain, 2016
* Do Medical Marijuana Laws Reduce Addictions and Deaths Related to Pain Killers?, NBER Working Paper No. 21345, 2015
* Medical Cannabis Laws and Opioid Analgesic Overdose Mortality in the United States, 1999-2010, JAMA Internal Medicine, 2014

A kannabiszhoz való hozzáférés a vényköteles gyógyszerhez köthető aktivitások általános csökkenésével jár:

* A randomized trial of medical cannabis in patients with stage IV cancers to assess feasibility, dose requirements, impact on pain and opioid use, safety, and overall patient satisfaction, Supportive Care in Cancer, 2021
* Prolonged medical cannabis treatment is associated with quality of life improvement and reductions of analgesic medication consumption in chronic pain patients, Frontiers in Pharmacology, 2021
* Cannabidiol as a treatment for chronic pain: A survey of patients’ attitudes and perspectives. Journal of Pain Research, 2021
* Substituting cannabidiol for opioids and pain medications among individuals with fibromyalgia: A large online survey. Journal of Pain, 2021
* The impact of medical and recreational marijuana laws on opioid prescribing in employer‐sponsored health insurance, Health Economics, 2021
* Mixed methods study of potential therapeutic benefits from medical cannabis for patients in Florida, Complimentary Therapies in Medicine, 2021
* The role of cannabis in pain management among people living with HIV who use drugs: A qualitative study, Drug and Alcohol Review, 2021
* The impact of light cannabis on liberalization of prescription drugs, Journal of Health Economics, 2020
* Medical marijuana laws and medical and non-medical prescription stimulant use among a nationally representative sample of US adults: Potential spillover effects by sexual identity and gender, International Journal of Drug Policy, 2020
* Clinical conditions and prescription drug utilization among early medical marijuana registrants in Florida, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 2020
* Using recreational cannabis to treat insomnia: Evidence from over-the-counter sleep aid sales in Colorado, Complimentary Therapies in Medicine, 2019
* Reduction of benzodiazepine use in patients prescribed medical cannabis, Cannabis and cannabinoid Research, 2019
* Pills to pot: Observational analyses of cannabis substitution among medical cannabis users with chronic pain, Journal of Pain, 2019
* State marijuana laws and opioid overdose mortality, Injury Epidemiology, 2019
* Association between US state medical cannabis laws and opioid prescribing in the Medicare Part D population, JAMA Internal Medicine, 2018
* Preliminary evaluation of the efficacy, safety, and costs associated with the treatment of chronic pain with medical cannabis, Mental Health Clinician, 2018
* Effects of legal access to cannabis on Schedule II-V prescriptions, Journal of Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine, 2017
* The effects of medical marijuana laws on prescribed opioids and other prescription drugs, SSRN Working Paper, 2017
* Medical Marijuana Laws May Be Associated With A Decline In The Number Of Prescriptions For Medicaid Enrollees, Health Affairs, 2017
* Medical Marijuana Laws Reduce Prescription Medication Use In Medicare Part D, Health Affairs, 2016

A kannabisz alkalmazása mint kiegészítő  kezelés fokozza az opioidok fájdalomcsillapító tulajdonságait:

* Within-subject, double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled evaluation of the combined effects of the cannabinoid dronabinol and the opioid hydromorphone in a human laboratory model, Neuropyschopharmacology, 2021
* A cost-effective model for adjunctive smoked cannabis in the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain, Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2019
* Medicinal properties of cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids in cannabis, and benefits in migraine, headache and pain: An update on current evidence and cannabis science, Headache, 2018
* Impact of co-administration of oxycodone and smoked cannabis on analgesia and abuse liability, Neuropsychopharmacology, 2018
* Emerging evidence for cannabis’ role in opioid use disorder, Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2018
* Cannabinoid-opioid interaction in chronic pain, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2011

A betegek gyakran használnak kannabiszt más szabályozott anyagok, köztük vényköteles gyógyszerek, alkohol és dohány helyettesítésére:

* Utilization of medicinal cannabis for pain by individuals with spinal cord injury, Spinal Cord Series and Cases, 2020
* The impact of cannabis access laws on opioid prescribing, Journal of Health Economics, 2019
* A cross-sectional examination of choice and behavior of veterans with access to free medicinal cannabis, The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 2019
* The safety and efficacy of medical cannabis in fibromyalgia, Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2019
* Marijuana as a substitute for prescription medications: A qualitative study, Substance Use & Misuse, 2019
* Medical cannabis: effects on opioid and benzodiazepine requirements for pain control, Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 2019
* Multiple Sclerosis and use of medical cannabis: A retrospective review evaluating symptom outcomes, Neurology, 2019
* Pills to pot: observational analyses of cannabis substitution among medical cannabis users with chronic pain, The Journal of Pain, 2019
* Cannabis use behaviors and prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in a cohort of Canadian medicinal cannabis users, Journal of Psychiatric Research, 2019
* Medical cannabis patterns of use and substitution for opioids & other pharmaceutical drugs, alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substances; results from a cross-sectional survey of authorized patients, Harm Reduction Journal, 2019
* Reduction of benzodiazepine use in patients prescribed medical cannabis, Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2019
* Medical cannabis users’ comparisons between medical cannabis and mainstream medicine, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 2019
* Prospective analysis of safety and efficacy of medical cannabis in large unselected population of patients with cancer, European Journal of Internal Medicine, 2018
* Effect of adding medical cannabis treatment to analgesic treatment in patients with low back pain related to fibromyalgia: An observational cross-over single center study, Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, 2018
* Cannabis use is associated with lower odds of prescription opioid analgesic use among HIV-infected individuals with chronic pain, Substance Abuse & Misuse, 2018
* Preferences for medical marijuana over prescription medications among persons living with chronic conditions, The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Care, 2017
* Perceptions of the use of medical marijuana in the treatment of pain following musculoskeletal trauma, Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 2017
* Rationale for cannabis-based interventions in the opioid overdose crisis, Harm Reduction Journal, 2017
* Aclara Research, Cannabis, Prescription Drugs, and Opioid Usage: Study Highlights, 2017
* Survey: Nearly half of people who use cannabidiol products stop taking traditional medicine, Forbes.com, 2017
* Cannabis as a substitute for opioid-based pain medication: patient self-report, Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2017
* Substitution of medical cannabis for pharmaceutical agents for pain, anxiety, and sleep, Journal of Psychopharmacology, 2017
* Medical cannabis access, use, and substitution for prescription opioids and other substances: A survey of authorized medical cannabis patients, International Journal of Drug Policy, 2017
* Cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs – a cross-sectional study, Journal of Pain Research, 2017
* Substituting cannabis for prescription drugs, alcohol and other substances among medical cannabis patients: The impact of contextual factors, Drug and Alcohol Review, 2015
* Medical cannabis in Arizona: Patient characteristics, perceptions, and impressions of medical cannabis legalization. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 2015

A krónikus fájdalomban szenvedő betegek ritkábban élnek vissza kannabisszal mint az opioidokkal:

* Problematic use of prescription opioids and medicinal cannabis among patients suffering from chronic pain, Pain Medicine, 2016

A krónikus fájdalomtól szenvedő betegek kevésbé valószínű, hogy depressziósak lesznek a kannabisz használata során:

* Depression and anxiety among chronic pain patients receiving prescription opioids and medical marijuana, Journal of Affective Disorders, 2017

A kannabiszhasználat az opioidok használatának magasabb arányú retencióját eredményezi és enyhítheti az opioidok iránti vágyakozást:

* The association between cannabis use and outcome in pharmacological treatment for opioid use disorder, Harm Reduction Journal, 2021
* Cannabis use is associated with reduced risk of exposure to fentanyl among people on opioid agonist therapy during a community-wide overdose crisis, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2020
* Emerging evidence of cannabis’ role in opioid use disorder, Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2020
* A pilot study of a medical cannabis – opioid reduction program, American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 2019
* Cannabidiol for the reduction of cue-induced craving and anxiety in drug-abstinent individuals with heroin use disorder: A double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial, in The American Journal of Psychiatry , 2019
* Emerging evidence for cannabis’ role in opioid use disorder, Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2018
* High-intensity cannabis use is associated with retention in opioid agonist treatment: a longitudinal analysis, Addiction, 2018
* Early phase in the development of cannabidiol as a treatment for addiction: Opioid relapse takes center stage, Neurotherapeutics, 2015
* The effects of dronabinol during detoxification and the initiation of treatment with extended release naltrexone, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2015
* Intermittent marijuana use is associated with improved retention in naltrexone treatment for opiate-dependence, American Journal of Addictions, 2009
* Concurrent substance use and outcome in combined behavioral and naltrexone therapy for opiate dependence, The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 2009
A rekreációs kannabisz-használat legalizálása nincs összefüggésben az bűnözés növekedésével:

* Is recreational marijuana use a gateway to harder drug use and crime? National Bureau of Economic Research, 2021
* The spillover efect of recreational marijuana legalization on crime: Evidence from neighboring states of Colorado and Washington state, Journal of Drug Issues, 2020
* The cannabis effect on crime: Time-series analysis of crime in Colorado and Washington State, Justice Quarterly, 2019
* Measuring the Criminal Justice System Impacts of Marijuana Legalization and Decriminalization Using State Data, Justice Research and Statistics Association, 2019
* Crime and the legalization of recreational marijuana, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2018
* Marijuana legalization and crime clearance rates: Testing proponent assertions in Colorado and Washington state, Police Quarterly, 2018
* Crime and the Legalization of Recreational Marijuana, IZA Institute of Labor Economics Discussion paper, 2017
* “What actually happened to violent crime after Washington legalized marijuana”, The News Tribune, July 26, 2017
* Dose of Reality: The Effect of State Marijuana Legalizations, CATO Policy Analysis, 2016
* “Crime down and revenues up in Colorado since start of legalization”, Russia Today, June 4, 2014

Az orvosi kannabisz-használat legalizálása nincs összefüggésben az bűnözés növekedésével:

* High on Crime? Exploring the Effects of Marijuana Dispensary Laws on Crime in California Counties, IZA Institute of Labor Economics Discussion Paper Series, May 2018
* Is legal pot crippling Mexican drug trafficking organizations? The effect of medical marijuana laws on US crime, 2018. The Economic Journal
* Joint culpability: The effects of medical marijuana laws on crime. SSRN Working Paper, 2017
* The effect of medical marijuana laws on crime: Evidence from state panel data, 1990-2006, 2017. PLOS One

A kiskereskedelmi kannabisz-létesítmények és a megnövekedett bűnözés közt nincs pozitív összefüggés, viszont szerepet játszhatnak bizonyos bűncselekmények, például a lopás megelőzésében:

* Not in my backyard? Not so fast. The effect of marijuana legalization on neighborhood crime, Regional Science and Urban Economics, 2019
* The geography of crime and violence surrounding tobacco shops, medical marijuana dispensaries, and off-sale alcohol outlets in a large, urban low-income community of color, Preventive Medicine, 2017
* Going to pot: The impact of dispensary closures on crime. Journal of Urban Economics, 2017
* Exploring the ecological association between crime and medical marijuana dispensaries, Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 2012
A kannabisz kiskereskedelmi egységek nincsenek pozitív összefüggésben a bűnözés növekedésével:

* Not in my backyard? Not so fast. The effect of marijuana legalization on neighborhood crime, Regional Science and Urban Economics, 2019
* High on Crime? Exploring the Effects of Marijuana Dispensary Laws on Crime in California Counties, IZA Institute of Labor Economics Discussion Paper Series, May 2018
* Exploring the ecological association between crime and medical marijuana dispensaries, Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 2012
* The geography of crime and violence surrounding tobacco shops, medical marijuana dispensaries, and off-sale alcohol outlets in a large, urban low-income community of color, Preventive Medicine, 2017
* LAPD Chief: Pot clinics not plagued by crime
* Springs finds no tie between crime and marijuana shops
* Medical dispensaries effect on crime unclear
* No, legalizing medical marijuana doesn’t lead to crime, according to actual crime stats
* Have medical marijuana dispensaries increased crime in other towns?
* Medical marijuana stores impact neighborhoods in Denver no more than coffee shops, study says
* Medical marijuana dispensaries and their effect on crime
* Do medical marijuana dispensaries increase crime?

Ezzel szemben az orvosi kannabisz gyógyszertárak bezárása a bűnözés növekedésével jár:

* Going to pot: The impact of dispensary closures on crime. Journal of Urban Economics, 2017

A kannabisz kiskereskedelmi egységek a lakások értékének növekedésével járnak:

* Clever Real Estate: Data Science, “2021 Study: How Legalizing Recreational Marijuana Impacts Homes Values,” July 12, 2021
* The effect of marijuana dispensary openings on housing prices, Contemporary Economic Policy, 2018
* Contact high: The external effects of retail marijuana establishments on house prices, Real Estate Economics, 2017
* The effect of legalizing retail marijuana on housing values: Evidence from Colorado, University of Mississippi working paper series, 2016

Az kannabisz gyógyszertárak ügyfelei általában idősebb korúak, értékelik a kannabisz egyes törzseit, és nagyobb mennyiségű kannabiszt igényelnek terápiás állapotuk kezelésére:

* Are dispensaries indispensable? Patient experiences and access to cannabis from medical cannabis dispensaries in Canada. International Journal on Drug Policy, 2017

A kannabisz-gyógyszertárak elterjedtsége és a tinédzserek fokozott kannabisz-használata közt nincs pozitív kapcsolat:

* Journal of Cannabis Research, Density of medical and recreational cannabis outlets: racial/ethnic differences in the association with young adult intentions to use cannabis, e-cigarattes, and cannabis mixed with tobacco/nicotine, 2021
* Medical marijuana laws (MMLs) and dispensary provisions not associated with higher odds of adolescent marijuana or heavy marijuana use: A 46 State Analysis, 1991-2015, Substance Abuse, 2021
* High school student cannabis use and perceptions towards cannabis in southern Colorado — Comparing communities that permit recreational dispensaries and communities that do not, Journal of Cannabis Research, 2019
* Medical marijuana availability , price, and product variety and adolescent’s marijuana use, Journal of Adolescent Health, 2018
* Medical marijuana availability, price, and product variety, and adolescent’s marijuana use, Journal of Adolescent Health, 2018
* Adolescent marijuana use and perceived ease of access before and after recreational marijuana implementation in Colorado, Substance Use & Misuse, 2017
* The availability of medical marijuana dispensary and adolescent marijuana use, Preventive Medicine, 2016

A kannabisz kiskereskedők nem értékesítenek kiskorúak felé, és termékeik nem célozzák a kiskorúak piacát:

* Assessment of recreational cannabis dispensaries’ compliance with underage access and marketing restrictions in California, JAMA Pediatrics, 2021
* An examination of the legal marijuana use age and its enforcement in California, a state where recreational marijuana is legal, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, 2021
* “OLCC Launches Marijuana Retailer Minor Decoy Checks,” Oregon Liquor and Control Board press release, December 20, 2017
* Pseudo-Underage Assessment of Compliance With Identification Regulations at Retail Marijuana Outlets in Colorado, Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 2016

A kannabisz hozzáférhetősége a kiskereskedelemben a lakosság csökkent opioidfogyasztásával jár:

* Association between county level cannabis dispensary counts and opioid related mortality rates in the United States: panel data study, BMJ, 2021
* Medical marijuana laws and their effect on opioid-related morality, Economics Bulletin, 2019
* Do medical marijuana laws reduce addictions and deaths related to pain killers? Journal of Health Economics, 2018
* The effects of marijuana dispensaries on adverse opioid outcomes. SSRN Working Paper, 2017
* Do medical marijuana laws reduce addictions and death related to pain killers? NBER Working paper No. 21345, 2015
A munkahelyen kívüli kannabisz-használat nem áll pozitív összefüggésben a munkahelyi balesetek vagy sérülések számának növekedésével:

* Cannabis use and work-related injuries: A cross-sectional analysis, Occupational Medicine, 2020
* Altered states or much to do about nothing? A study of when cannabis is used in relation to the impact it has on performance, Group & Organizational Management, 2020
* Systematic review of cannabis use and risk of occupational injury, Substance Use and Misuse, 2020
* Medical marijuana and workplace fatalities in the United States, International Journal of Drug Policy, 2018
* The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2017
* Occupational and non-occupational factors associated with work-related injuries among construction workers in the USA, International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2015
* Marijuana use and workplace safety: An examination of urine drug tests, Journal of Addictive Diseases, 2014
* Testing for cannabis in the workplace: a review of the evidence, Addiction, 2010

A liberalizált kannabisz-törvények nagyobb munkaerő-részvételt, alacsonyabb hiányzási arányokat, a munkavállalók kártérítési kérelmeinek csökkenését és magasabb béreket eredményeznek:

* Does marijuana legalization affect workplace capacity? Evidence from workers’ compensation benefits, National Bureau of Economic Research, 2021
* Medical marijuana and workers’ compensation claiming, Health Economics, 2020
* The Effect of Medical Marijuana on Sickness Absence, Health Economics, 2016
* The impact of medical marijuana laws on the labor supply and health of older adults: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study, NBER Working Paper No. 22688, 2016
* Marijuana decriminalization and labor market outcomes, ESSPRI (Economic Self-Sufficiency Policy Research Institute, University of California, Irvine) Working Paper, 2016
Az elmúlt években az önbevallások alapján jelentősen nőtt a kannabiszhasználat idősebb felnőttek és/vagy idősek körében:

* CBS News, May 19, 2016
* Comparing older nonmedical and medical cannabis users: Health-related characteristics, cannabis use patterns, and cannabis sources. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 2021
* Recent trends in cannabis use in older Americans. Annals of Internal Medicine, 2021
* Trends in cannabis use among older adults in the United States, 2015-2018, JAMA Internal Medicine, 2020
* Cannabis use frequency, route of administration, and co-use of alcohol among older adults in Washington state, Journal of Cannabis Research, 2021
* Decreasing perceived risk associated with regular cannabis use among older adults in the United States from 2015 to 2019, Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 2021

Az idősebb felnőttek növekvő százaléka fordul a kannabisz felé kizárólag terápiás célú használata miatt:

* Recent trends in cannabis use in older Americans. Annals of Internal Medicine, 2021
* Cannabis: An emerging treatment for common symptoms in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 2020
* VeriLife 2020 survey

Egyre több tudományos adat mutat rá, hogy az idősebb felnőttek általi kannabisz-használat az életminőségük javulásával jár együtt:

* Biopsychosocial factors and health outcomes associated with cannabis, opioids and benzodiazepines use among older veterans. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 2021
* Medical cannabis use: Exploring the perceptions and experiences of older adults with chronic conditions. Clinical Gerontologist, 2021
* Assessing health-related outcomes of medical cannabis use among older persons: Findings from Colorado and Illinois. Clinical Gerontologist, 2020
* Patterns of marijuana use and health impact: A survey among older Coloradoans. Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine, 2019
* Epidemiological characteristics, safety and efficacy of medical cannabis in the elderly. European Journal of Internal Medicine, 2018

Az idősebb emberek kannabiszhasználata nagyobb fizikai aktivitással jár:

* Cannabis use, sedentary behavior, and physical activity in a nationally representative sample of US adults. The Harm Reduction Journal, 2021
* Exercise intervention outcomes with cannabis users and nonusers aged 60 and older. American Journal of Health and Behavior, 2020
Az orvosok és orvostanhallgatók többsége támogatja a kannabisz alapú terápiás kezelés lehetőségét:

* Clinician beliefs and practices related to cannabis, Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2021
* Attitudes and knowledge about medical cannabis among Israeli and American nursing students, Nurse Education Today, 2021
* Lister Hill Center for Public Policy School of Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 2021
* BMC Family Practice, A survey of the attitudes, beliefs and knowledge about medical cannabis among primary care providers, 2019
* New York physicians’ perspectives and knowledge of the state medical marijuana program, Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2018
* American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2015
* “WebMD, “Legalize medical marijuana, doctors say in survey, March 25, 2014

Az egészségügyi szakemberek növekvő százaléka ismeri el, hogy már javasolta az orvosi kannabiszt, vagy hogy megtenné, ha törvény által megengedett lenne:

* Clinician beliefs and practices related to cannabis, Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2021
* Attitudes and knowledge about medical cannabis among Israeli and American nursing students, Nurse Education Today, 2021

A legtöbb egészségügyi szakember elismeri, hogy soha nem kapott hivatalos képzést a kannabisz tudományát illetően, és úgy véli, hogy a kannabiszról szóló oktatásnak a tantervének részét kellene képeznie:

* Medical cannabis education among healthcare trainees: A scoping review, Complimentary Therapies in Medicine, 2021
* Attitudes and knowledge about medical cannabis among Israeli and American nursing students, Nurse Education Today, 2021
* A national needs assessment of Canadian nurse practitioners regarding cannabis for therapeutic purposes, Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2018
* Physicians-in-training are not prepared to prescribe medical marijuana, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2017
* Pharmacy students’ knowledge and attitudes regarding medical marijuana, American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2015
A veteránok jóval magasabb arányban fogyasztanak kannabiszt, mint a népesség többi része, és sokan arról számolnak be, hogy gyógyászati céllal használják:

* Does cannabis use modify the effect of post-traumatic stress disorder on severe depression and suicidal ideation? Evidence from a population-based cross-sectional study of Canadians, Journal of Psychopharmacology, 2019
* Recent cannabis use among Veterans in the United States: Results from a national sample. Addictive Behaviors, 2018
* IAVA 2019 member survey, 2019
* The American Legion, Survey shows veteran households support research of medical cannabis, 2017
* VHA Directive 1315, Access to VHA Clinical Programs for Veterans Participating in State-Approved Marijuana Programs, December 8, 2017

Sok veterán arról számol be, hogy orvosi kannabisszal helyettesíti a vényköteles gyógyszereket és az alkoholt:

* A cross-sectional examination of choice and behavior of veterans with access to free medicinal cannabis, The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 2019

A veteránok gyakran számolnak be arról, hogy kannabiszt használnak a krónikus fájdalmak és a hangulatzavarok tüneteinek kezelésére, például a poszttraumatikus stressz során. A klinikai adatok alátámasztják a kannabisszal történő kezelés alkalmasságát ezekre a javallatokra:

* Biopsychosocial factors and health outcomes associated with cannabis, opioids and benzodiazepines use among older veterans, The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 2021
* Use of cannabinoids for the treatment of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder, Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, 2021
* Medical cannabis use in the United States: A retrospective database study, Journal of Cannabis Research, 2021
* Long-Term, prospective, therapeutic impact of cannabis on post-traumatic stress disorder, Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research , 2020
* Effects of ∆ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on aversive memories and anxiety: a review from human studies, BMC Psychiatry, 2020
* Does cannabis use modify the effect of post-traumatic stress disorder on severe depression and suicidal ideation? Evidence from a population-based cross-sectional study of Canadians, Journal of Psychopharmacology, 2019
* National Academy of Sciences, The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids, January 2017
* PTSD symptom reports of patients evaluated for the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Program, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 2014
* Mitigation of post-traumatic stress symptoms by cannabis resin: A review of the clinical and neurobiological evidence, Drug Testing and Analysis, 2012

Azokban az államokban, ahol az orvosi kannabisz legális, az opioidok okozta halálozás jelentősen csökkent:

* Do medical marijuana laws reduce addictions and deaths related to pain killers? Journal of Health Economics, 2018
* Recreational cannabis legalization and opioid-related deaths in Colorado, 2000-2015, 2017
* National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 21345, 2015
* Medical cannabis laws and opioid analgesic overdose mortality in the United States, 1999-2010, JAMA Internal Medicine, 2014

Az orvosi kannabisz hozzáférésére jogosult fájdalmakkal küzdő betegek vizsgálatai azt mutatják, hogy a legtöbb alany jelentősen csökkenti vagy megszünteti az opioidok használatát a kannabiszterápiát követően:

* Minnesota Department of Health, Intractable Pain Patients in the Minnesota Medical Cannabis Program: Experience of Enrollees During the First Five Months, 2018
* Epidemiological characteristics, safety and efficacy of medical cannabis in the elderly, European Journal of Internal Medicine, 2018
* Associations between medical cannabis and prescription opioid use in chronic pain patients: A preliminary cohort study, PLOS One, 2017
* Substitution of medical cannabis for pharmaceutical agents for pain, anxiety, and sleep, Journal of Psychopharmacology, 2017
* Medical cannabis use is associated with decreased opiate medication use in a retrospective cross-sectional survey of patients with chronic pain, Journal of Pain, 2016
* The effect of medicinal cannabis on pain and quality-of-life outcomes in chronic pain: A prospective open-label study, Clinical Journal of Pain, 2016
Kannabisz hatása alatt történő gépjárművezetés minden államban bűncselekmény, függetlenül a kannabisz törvényi jogállásától:

* Effects of therapeutic cannabis on simulated driving: A pilot study, Journal of Concurrent Disorders, 2020
* Acute and residual effects of smoked cannabis: Impact on driving speed and lateral control, heart rate, and self-reported drug effects, Alcohol Dependence, 2019
* Cannabis effects on driving longitudinal control with and without alcohol, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2016
* Effects of THC on driving performance, physiological state and subjective feelings relative to alcohol, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2008
* US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, State of Knowledge of Drug-Impaired driving: FINAL REPORT, 2003
* US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Marijuana and Actual Driving Performance, 1993

A valós közúti vezetési teljesítmény értékelések során az alanyok jellemzően mindössze minimális változásokat mutatnak a pszichomotoros teljesítmény terén a THC beadását követően:

* Congressional Research Service, Marijuana Use and Highway Safety, 2019
* The effect of cannabis compared with alcohol on driving, The American Journal on Addictions, 2009
* US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Visual Search and Urban City Driving under the Influence of Marijuana and Alcohol, 2000
* US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Marijuana and Actual Driving Performance, 1993

A kannabisz és az alkohol együttes alkalmazása általában additív hatással van a pszichomotoros teljesítményre, ami jelentősen csökkent teljesítményhez és nagyobb baleseti esélyekhez vezethet:

* Combined effect of alcohol and cannabis on simulated driving, Psychopharmacology, 2021
* Role of alcohol and marijuana use in the initiation of fatal two-vehicle crashes, Annals of Epidemiology, 2017
* Interaction of marijuana and alcohol on fatal motor vehicle crash risk: a case-control study, Injury Epidemiology, 2017
* Controlled cannabis vaporizer administration: Blood and plasma cannabinoids with and without alcohol, Clinical Chemistry, 2015
* The combined effects of alcohol and cannabis on driving: Impact on crash risk, Forensic Science International, 2015
* The culpability of drivers killed in New Zealand road crashes and their use of alcohol and other drugs, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2014
* Impairment due to cannabis and ethanol: clinical signs and additive effects, Addiction, 2010

Ezzel szemben a THC-ra pozitív sofőrök, akikben nincs jelen az alkohol, jellemzően csak kis mértékben, vagy egyáltalán nem jelentenek kockázatot a gépjármű-balesetek szempontjából, hasonlóan a kábítószer-negatív sofőrökhöz:

* Cannabis use as a risk factor for causing motor vehicle crashes: a prospective study, Addiction, 2019
* Driving while stoned: Issues and policy options, BOTEC Analysis/SSRN white paper, 2018
* A meta-analysis of the crash risk of cannabis-positive drivers in culpability studies — Avoiding interpretational bias, Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2018
* The association of unfavorable traffic events and cannabis usage: A meta-analysis, Frontiers in Pharmacology, 2018
* Cannabis and crash responsibility while driving below the alcohol per se legal limit, Accident, Analysis and Prevention, 2017
* The effects of cannabis intoxication on motor vehicle collision revisited and revised, Addiction, 2016
* US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Drug and Alcohol Crash Risk, 2015
* Drugs and Alcohol: Their Relative Crash Risk, Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 2014
* Risk of road accident associated with the use of drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence from epidemiological studies, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2013
* Risk of severe driver injury by driving with psychoactive substances, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2013
* Psychoactive substance use and the risk of motor vehicle accidents, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2004

Összehasonlításképpen, a gépjárművek több utassal történő vezetése vagy akár a csekély alkoholfogyasztás is olyan magatartások, amelyek a gépjármű-balesetek kockázatával járnak együtt:

* The contribution of passengers versus mobile phone use to motor vehicle crashes resulting in hospital attendance by the driver, ScienceDirect, 2007
* Pregnancy and the risk of a traffic crash, CMAJ, 2014
* Cannabis, alcohol, and fatal road accidents, PLOS One, 2017
* Official blame for drivers with very low blood alcohol content: there is no safe combination of drinking and driving, Injury Prevention, 2014
* Risk of automobile accidents in cigarette smokers, Canadian Journal of Public Health, 1990
* In Study, Texting Lifts Crash Risk by Large Margin, New York Times, 2009
* Psychotropic drugs and risk of motor vehicle accidents: a population-based case-control study, British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 2013
* Is there a link between motor vehicle collisions and being a cigarette smoker in Canada?, 2017

Az adatok nem támasztják alá azokat az állításokat, hogy a kannabisz használat miatti halálos balesetek száma emelkedne azokban az államokban, amelyek szabályozzák a kannabisz orvosi célú felhasználását, sőt egyes adatok arra mutatnak, hogy a gépjármű-balesetek száma épp fordítva csökkenni látszik:

* An examination of relationships between cannabis legalization and fatal motor vehicle and pedestrian-involved crashes, Traffic Injury Prevention, 2020
* Marijuana medicalization and motor vehicle fatalities: A synthetic control group approach, Journal of Experimental Criminology, 2018.
* US Traffic Fatalities, 1985–2014, and Their Relationship to Medical Marijuana Laws, Journal of the American Public Health Association, 2016
* State medical marijuana laws and the prevalence of opioids detected among fatally injured drivers, American Journal of Public Health, 2016

Ezzel szemben a rekreációs használat legalizációjának a gépjármű-balesetekre gyakorolt lehetséges hatását felmérő adatok vegyesebbek. A legalizációt közvetlenül követő években közzétett kezdeti jelentések következetesen nem mutattak változást a baleseti tendenciákban, míg a hosszabb időtartamokat felmérő újabb tanulmányok következetlen megállapításokról számolnak be:

* Drug use in Canadian patients with trauma after cannabis legalization, Canadian Journal of Surgery, 2021
* Marijuana legalization and rates of crashing under the influence of tetrahydrocannabinol and alcohol, The American Surgeon, 2021
* Association of recreational cannabis laws in Colorado and Washington state with changes in traffic fatalities, 2005-2017, JAMA Internal Medicine, 2020
* Changes in traffic fatality rates in the first four states to legalize recreational marijuana, JAMA Internal Medicine, 2020
* Fatal crashes in the 5 years after recreational marijuana legalization in Colorado and Washington, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2019
* Early Evidence on Recreational Marijuana Legalization and Traffic Fatalities, National Bureau of Economic Research, 2018
* Crash fatality rates after recreational marijuana legalization in Washington and Colorado, The American Journal of Public Health, 2017
* Comments from Larry Wolk, Chief Medical Officer of the Colorado Department of Public Health, October 23, 2017
* The Marijuana Policy Gap and the Path Forward, Congressional Research Service, 2017
* The Marijuana Policy Gap and the Path Forward, Congressional Research Service, 2017
* Marijuana Legalization Hasn’t Increased Traffic Fatalities In Oregon, Oregon Public Broadcasting, March 9, 2017
* Medical Marijuana Laws, Traffic Fatalities, and Alcohol Consumption, Institute for the Study of Labor, 2011

Már a javasolt THC küszöbértékek sem bizonyítékokon alapulnak, és ez eredményezheti, hogy olyan felnőtteket kriminalizálnak hibásan, akik több nappal korábban fogyasztottak kannabiszt, de már nincsenek befolyása alatt:

* Cannabis and driving ability, Current Opinion in Psychology, 2021
* Cannabis and driving ability, Current Opinion in Psychology, 2021
* Cannabis use and car crashes: A review, Frontiers in Psychiatry, 2021
* California Highway Patrol Impaired Driving Task Force, Report to the Legislature, January 2021
* The failings of per se limits to detect cannabis-induced driving impairment: Results from a simulated driving study, Traffic Injury Prevention, 2021
* Residual blood THC levels in frequent cannabis users after four hours of abstinence: A systematic review, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2020
* Strengths and limitations of two cannabis-impaired driving detection methods: a review of the literature, The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 2019
* Written testimony of Dr. Igor Grant, Director Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research, before the California Senate Committee on Labor, Public Employment and Retirement, November 8, 2019.
* Congressional Research Service, Marijuana Use and Highway Safety, 2019
* Report from the Michigan Impaired Driving Safety Commission, March 2019.
* On the impact of cannabis consumption on traffic safety: a driving simulator study with habitual cannabis consumers, International Journal of Legal Medicine, 2019
* Statement of Dr. Daniele Piomelli, professor of anatomy and neurobiology at the University of California, Irvine, March 1, 2019
* Driving while stoned: Issues and policy options, BOTEC Analysis/SSRN white paper, 2018
* Driving under the influence of cannabis: A framework for future policy, Anesthesia and Analgesia, 2018
* US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Drugs and Human Performance online factsheet
* Cannabinoid markers in biological fluids and tissue: Revealing intake, Trends in Molecular Medicine, 2018
* Statement of Marilyn Huestis, who spent over 20 years leading cannabinoid-related research projects at the US National Institute on Drug Abuse, January 25, 2018
* The association of unfavorable traffic events and cannabis usage: A meta-analysis, Frontiers in Pharmacology, 2018
* American Automobile Association, An Evaluation of Data from Drivers Arrested for Driving Under the Influence in Relation to Per Se Limits for Cannabis, 2016
* US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Understanding the Limitations of Drug Test Information, Reporting, and Testing Practices in Fatal Car Crashes, 2014
* Cannabis effects on driving skills, Clinical Chemistry, 2013
* Marijuana DUI Workgroup, 2011
* Dose related risk of motor vehicle crashes after cannabis use: an update, 2009
* US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Marijuana and Actual Driving Performance, 1993
A kannabisz kitettség és a kognitív teljesítményre gyakorolt jelentős, vagy maradandó káros hatás közt nincs ok-okozati összefüggés:

* Residual effects of cannabis-use on neuropsychological functioning, Cognitive Development, 2021
* Investigating the causal effect of cannabis use on cognitive function with a quasi-experimental co-twin design, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2019
* Preliminary results from a pilot study examining brain structure in older adult cannabis users and nonusers, Psychiatric Research: Neuroimaging, 2019
* Association of cannabis with cognitive functioning in adolescents and young adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis, JAMA Psychiatry, 2018
* Early Cannabis Use and Neurocognitive Risk: A Prospective Functional Neuroimaging Study, Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 2018
* Associations between adolescent cannabis use and neuropsychological decline: A longitudinal co-twin control study, Addiction, 2018
* Early cannabis use and neurocognitive risk: A prospective functional neuroimaging study, Biological Psychiatry, 2018
* Cannabis use and cognitive function: 8-year trajectory in a young adult cohort, Addiction, 2011
* Lack of hippocampal volume change in long-term heavy cannabis users, American Journal of Addictions, 2005
* Long-term effects of frequent cannabis use on working memory and attention: An fMRI study, Psychopharmacology, 2006
* Neuropsychological consequences of regular marijuana use: A twin study, Psychological Medicine, 2004

A kannabisz-kitettség még a fiatalok körében sem jár együtt az agy morfológiájának ok-okozati, hosszú távú változásaival:

* The effects of alcohol and cannabis use on the cortical thickness of cognitive control and salience brain networks in emerging adulthood: A co-twin control study, Biological Psychiatry, 2021
* The relation between cannabis use, dependence severity and white matter microstructure: A diffusion tensor imaging study, Addiction Biology, 2021
* Associations between adolescent cannabis use frequency and adult brain structure: A prospective study of boys followed to adulthood, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2019
* Cannabis use in youth is associated with limited alterations in brain structure, Neurophyschopharmacology, 2019
* Cortical surface morphology in long-term cannabis users: A multi-site MRI study, European Neuropsychopharmacology, 2018
* Testing associations between cannabis use and subcortical volumes in two large population-based samples, Addiction, 2018
* Structural neuroimaging correlates of alcohol and cannabis use in adolescents and adults, Addiction, 2017
* Shared predisposition in the association between cannabis use and subcortical brain structure, JAMA Psychiatry, 2015
* Daily marijuana use is not associated with brain morphometric measures in adolescents or adults, The Journal of Neuroscience, 2015

A potenciális zavaró tényezőket is figyelembe véve a kannabisz kumulatív használata nem jár jelentős vagy hosszú távú káros hatással az intelligencia hányadosára, még a fiatalok körében sem:

* Impact of adolescent marijuana use on intelligence: Results from two longitudinal twin studies, Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences, 2016
* Examining the influence of adolescent marijuana use on adult intelligence: Further evidence in the causation versus spuriousness debate, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2017
* Are IQ and educational outcomes in teenagers related to their cannabis use? A prospective cohort study, Journal of Psychopharmacology, 2016
* Correlations between cannabis use and IQ change in the Dunedin cohort are consistent with confounding from socioeconomic status, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2013
* Current and former marijuana use: Preliminary findings of a longitudinal study of effects on IQ in young adults, CMAJ, 2002
A kannabisz- és a dohányfüst nem egyformán karcinogén (rákkeltő):

* Cigarette smokers versus cannabis smokers versus co-users of cigarettes and cannabis: A pilot study examining exposure to toxicants, Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2021
* Marijuana and the lung: hysteria or cause for concern? Breathe, 2018
* Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic, Harm Reduction Journal, 2005

A dohányfüst-expozícióval ellentétben a kannabiszfüst expozíció nem áll pozitív összefüggésben a tüdő, vagy a felső légúti traktus rákos megbetegedéseivel, még hosszú távú expozíció esetén sem:

* Marijuana and Lung Disease, Chest, 2018
* National Academy of Sciences, The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids, 2017
* Cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk: Pooled analysis in the International Lung Cancer Consortium, International Journal of Cancer, 2015
* Marijuana use and the risk of lung and upper aerodigestive tract cancers: results of a population-based control study, Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, 2006
* Comments of Dr. Donald Tashkin, Professor Emeritus at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, May 26, 2006
* Marijuana use and cancer incidence, Cancer Causes & Control, 1997

A kannabiszfüst expozíció, még hosszú távon sem kapcsolódik a dohányzáshoz kapcsolódó jelentős tüdőkárosodáshoz, mint például a COPD:

* Cannabis use disorder and the lungs, Addiction, 2020
* Marijuana and Lung Disease, Chest, 2018
* Marijuana use associations with pulmonary symptoms and function in tobacco smokers enrolled in the subpopulations and intermediate outcome measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS), Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases, 2018
* The effects of marijuana exposure on expiratory airflow: A study of adults who participated in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Study, Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 2015
* Effects of marijuana smoking on the lung, Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 2013
* Cannabis and the lung: No more smoking gun? Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 2013
* Association between marijuana exposure and pulmonary function over 20 years, JAMA, 2012
* Letter from Dr. Donald Tashkin, Professor Emeritus at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA to the California Assembly Committee on Health, January 4, 2010

Párolgás/vaporizálás - ami addig a pontig hevíti a kannabiszt, ahol a kannabinoidok gőzöké alakulnak - csökkenti a fogyasztók potenciális légúti veszélyeknek való kitettségét, mint például az égő füst belélegzése, vagy nem kívánt részecskéknek való kitettség:

* In vitro validation of vaporizers for the smoke-free inhalation of cannabis, PLOS ONE, 2016
* No smoke, no fire: What the initial literature suggests regarding vapourized cannabis and respiratory risk, Canadian Journal of Respiratory Therapy, 2015
* Case studies in cannabis vaporization, Addiction Research & Theory, 2009
* Vaporization as a smokeless cannabis delivery system: A pilot study, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2007
* Decreased respiratory symptoms in cannabis users who vaporize, Harm Reduction Journal, 2007
* Evaluation of a vaporizing device for the pulmonary administration of tetrahydrocannabinol, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2006
A terhes nők 4-5 százaléka valamilyen mértékben használ kannabiszt. Ez a szint jelentősen csökken a terhesség alatt. Sok nő, aki a kannabisz terhesség közbeni használatáról számol be, ezt azért teszi, hogy kezelje a hányinger/reggeli rosszullét tüneteit:

* Cannabis and pregnancy: Maternal child health implications during a period of drug policy liberalization, Preventive Medicine, 2017
* Marijuana use in pregnancy and lactation: A review of the evidence, American Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2015
* Survey of medicinal cannabis use among childbearing women: patterns of its use in pregnancy and retroactive self-assessment of its efficacy against ‘morning sickness’, Complementary Therapies In Clinical Practice, 2006

Az eddigi adatok következetlenek abból a szempontból, hogy a méhen belüli kannabisz-expozíció független kapcsolatban áll-e a csecsemő alacsony születési súlyával, koraszüléssel vagy más nemkívánatos újszülöttkori következményekkel (pl. rövidebb terhességi kor):

* Marijuana Use during Pregnancy and Preterm Birth: A Prospective Cohort Study, American Journal of Perinatology, 2020
* The impact of state legalization on rates of marijuana use in pregnancy in a universal drug screening population, The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 2020
* The deleterious effects of cannabis during pregnancy on neonatal outcomes, The Medical Journal of Australia, 2020
* The impact of pregnancy marijuana use on birth outcomes: Results from two matched population-based cohorts, Journal of Perinatology, 2020
* Maternal smoking and cannabis use during pregnancy and infant outcomes, Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 2020
* Marijuana use during and after pregnancy and association of prenatal use on birth outcomes: A population-based study, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2018
* Maternal marijuana use and adverse neonatal outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2016
* Characteristics of pregnant illicit drug users and associations between cannabis use and perinatal outcome in a population-based study, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2010
* Newborn outcomes with maternal marihuana use in Jamaican women, Pediatric Nursing, 1988

A méhen belüli kannabisz-expozíció önmagában nem jár jelentős, következetes káros hatással a gyermekkori fejlődésre:

* Women and Cannabis: Medicine, Science, and Sociology, Haworth Press, 2002
* Totality of the Evidence Suggests Prenatal Cannabis Exposure Does Not Lead to Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic and Critical Review, Frontiers in Psychology, 2020
* Cannabis and pregnancy: Maternal child health implications during a period of drug policy liberalization, Preventive Medicine, 2017
* The effect of in utero exposure to alcohol, tobacco and cannabis on educational attainment in adolescence: findings from ALSPAC, a UK cohort study, Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 2017
* Five-year follow-up of rural Jamaican children whose mothers used marijuana during pregnancy, The West Indian Medical Journal, 1991
A szakértők egyetértenek abban, hogy a kannabisz használata nem hozható összefüggésbe más tiltott anyagok használatával:

* Is marijuana really a gateway drug? A nationally representative test of the marijuana gateway hypothesis using a propensity score matching design, Nature Communications, 2021
* The Benjamin Center for Public Policy Initiatives at SUNY New Paltz University, The Marijuana Gateway Fallacy, 2017
* Reassessing the marijuana gateway effect, Addiction, 2002
* Report of the Special Senate Committee on Illegal Drugs, Cannabis: Our Position for a Canadian Public policy, 2002
* National Academy of Sciences, Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base, 1999

A tiltott szereket fogyasztók többsége először alkohollal vagy dohányzással kísérletezett:

* Prioritizing alcohol prevention: Establishing alcohol as the gateway drug and linking age of first drink with illicit drug use, The Journal of School Health, 2016
* Relationship between substance initiation sequence and further substance use: A French nationwide prospective study
* Birth cohorts analysis of adolescent cigarette smoking and subsequent marijuana and cocaine use

Statisztikailag az emberek túlnyomó többsége, akik kipróbálják a kannabiszt, nem folytatják más tiltott drogokkal, és jellemzően középkorukig abbahagyják a kannabisz használatot is:

* US National Institute on Drug Abuse, “Is marijuana a gateway drug?” factsheet
* Predictors of marijuana use among married couples: The influence of one’s spouse, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2007

Ahol a kannabisz jogilag hozzáférhető, a felnőttek általában más ellenőrzött anyagok használatának csökkenését jelentik. Ebben az értelemben úgy tűnik, hogy a kannabisz inkább potenciális „kilépő drogként” viselkedik, nem pedig állítólagos „belépőként”:

* Rationale for cannabis-based interventions in the opioid overdose crisis, Harm Reduction Journal, 2017
* Substitution of medical cannabis for pharmaceutical agents for pain, anxiety, and sleep, Journal of Psychopharmacology, 2017
* Medical cannabis access, use, and substitution for prescription opioids and other substances: A survey of authorized medical cannabis patients, International Journal of Drug Policy, 2017
* Cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs – a cross-sectional study, Journal of Pain Research, 2017
* Substituting cannabis for prescription drugs, alcohol and other substances among medical cannabis patients: The impact of contextual factors, Drug and Alcohol Review, 2015

Klinikai körülmények között a kannabisz fogyasztása a kokain és az opiátok iránti vágy csökkenésével jár:

* Intentional cannabis use to reduce crack cocaine in a Canadian setting: A longitudinal analysis, Addictive Behaviors, 2017
* The effects of dronabinol during detoxification and the initiation of treatment with extended release naltrexone, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2015
* Does cannabis use predict poor outcome for heroin-dependent patients on maintenance treatment? A review of past findings, and more evidence against, Addiction, 2003
* Therapeutic use of cannabis by crack addicts in Brazil, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 1999
Az alkohol károsabb, mint a ma ismert legtöbb illegális kábítószer!

A The Global Commission On Drug Policy nemzetközi bizottság, amelynek neves szakembergárdájában magasrangú kormányzati vezetők is helyet foglalnak, 2019-es, nemrég nyilvánosságra hozott jelentése arra mutat rá, hogy a jelenleg illegálisnak minősülő legtöbb kábítószer egyike sem annyira káros összességében véve illetve a társadalomra gyakorolt negatív hatásukat tekintve (ide értve a bűnözést is), mint az alkohol. Amennyiben kizárólag a társadalmi hatást vesszük alapul, akkor az alkohol az egyértelmű listavezető.

Ennek a független nemzetközi szervezetnek céljai között szerepel, hogy a jelenlegi, hagyományokra és különböző lobbi tevékenységekre épülő kábítószer besorolások és úgy egyáltalán a drogszabályozás más megvilágítást kapjon, azaz tudományos tényekre épüljön.

Mindamellett, hogy teljesen életszerű az elképzelés, jelenleg ez a törekvés szinte lehetetlen küldetésnek látszik, egyrészt évszázados szokásokkal lenne szükség azonnal szembe menni, másrészt pedig komoly gazdasági cunami indulna el, amennyiben az alkoholt ugyanolyan vagy veszélyesebb kábítószernek minősítenék, mint például az ecstasy-t.

A drogok egyén és társadalom károsító hatásuk szerint grafikon:

Drog, kábítószer vagy narkó?

Nagy a fejetlenség a fogalmak terén Magyarországon, ezért a következő ábra segítségével szeretnénk szemléltetni, hogy az egyes ismertebb drogok (mindenfajta anyagot és vegyületet jelent, ami egy élő szervezet működését befolyásolja (tehát bioaktív), a tápanyagokat kivéve) milyen osztályokba sorolhatók a tudatra gyakorolt hatásuk szempontjából.

Tekintsük meg a ma is legális alkohol helyét, ami a heroinnal együtt a narkotikumok csoportjában szerepel, ezzel szemben a legkevésbé ártalmas, számos pszichés betegség esetén rendkívüli hatékonysággal alkalmazható hallucinogének mind illegálisak!

Az elterjedtebb drogokat pirossal emeltük ki a könnyebb megtalálásuk érdekében!
Az elterjedtebb drogokat pirossal emeltük ki a könnyebb megtalálásuk érdekében!

Forrás: Wikipedia