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Kannabisz vagy drog? Szóljanak a tények!

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A kannabisz a leggyakrabban használt illegális drog, egyes becslések szerint 190-250 millió ember használja világszerte. Ez megfelelően komoly szám ahhoz, hogy elgondolkozzunk végre azon, hogy tényleg értelmes-e ennyi embert bűnözőként kezelni!

A drogokat azért kezelik a bűnelkövetéssel egy kalap alatt, mert feltételezhetően társadalmi veszélyt jelentenek és szívesen, de az esetek túlnyomó többségében alaptalanul, társítják egyéb bűntények elkövetésével. Az illegális anyagok közül kimagasló helyen kezelik, a tiltások bevezetése óta, a kannabiszt, mivel azt kapudrognak tekintik. A társadalmi hatás széles körben vitatott, hiszen szinte lehetetlen objektíven megmondani mi az igazság, ugyanis jelenleg kizárólag olyan szempontok alapján tudjuk megközelíteni a kérdést, ahol a kábítószerek már évtizedek óta kriminalizálva vannak. Fogalmunk sincs arról, milyen lenne a világ ahol legálisak ezek a szerek, nem úgy mint az alkohol esetében, ugyanakkor a kannabiszt kapudrognak beállító elméletet egyre több tanulmány cáfolja.

Igaz ugyan, hogy a drogokat fogyasztók többsége próbálta már a kannabiszt, ugyanakkor az is igaz, hogy a kannabiszt fogyasztók többsége nem folytatja más, “keményebb” drogokkal. Nem felcserélendő az ok és az okozat! Így kizárható a kannabisz kapudrogként történő megbélyegzése, főleg mivel az is igaz, hogy egyéb drogokhoz nyúlók többsége az alkoholhoz nyúlt előbb mint a kannabiszhoz. A kannabiszt ellenzők és a kapudrog hipotézist támogatók szeretik viszont úgy elemezni az adatokat és az eseteket, hogy a tiltott listás anyagokat veszik csak számításba és ilyenkor a kannabisz az, ami az első körben kipróbált anyagok közt tündököl. Ez a hozzáállás viszont minden csak nem objektív!

Fontos megjegyezni, hogy a biológiai mechanizmusokon kívül más tényezők is, mint például az ember társadalmi helyzete és környezete, örökölt hajlamai is kritikusak a kábítószer-használat kockázata szempontjából. A kapudrog hipotézis sokkal objektívebb alternatívája, hogy a drogfogyasztás szempontjából kiszolgáltatottabb emberek egyszerűen nagyobb valószínűséggel kezdenek könnyen hozzáférhető anyagokkal, mint például a kannabisz, dohány vagy alkohol, és a későbbi társadalmi interakcióik által másokkal, akik szintén szereket fogyasztanak, nő annak az esélye, hogy más szereket is kipróbálnak.

Álláspontunk, hogy a kannabisz törvénykezésnek bizonyítékokon kell alapulnia. Éppen ezért összegyűjtöttük azokat a releváns, szakértők által felülvizsgált tanulmányokat, amelyek rávilágítanak a kannabisz használatának, üldözésének és szabályozásának egészségügyi és társadalmi hatásaira. Igyekeztünk őket olyan kategóriákba szedni amilyen aggályok gyakran felmerülnek az ellenzők csoportjaiban, méghozzá javarészt releváns, olyan országokból származó tanulmányokkal, ahol már több éve legális a kannabisz.

Előre felhívjuk mindenki figyelmét, hogy a kannabisz nem mindenkinek való! Vannak emberek szép számmal rejtett személyiségi hibákkal, rejtett pszichés betegségekel, amiket a kannabisz könnyen felszínre hozhat, vagy felerősíthet, ugyanakkor, csak mert a gépjármű vezetés nem való mindenkinek nem kriminalizálhatunk mindenkit, aki gépjárművet szeretne vezetni (alkoholról és ma is kapható számos gyógyszerről nem is beszélve)!

Kannabisz évtized összegzés

Amennyiben olyan emberekkel, szervezetekkel kerülsz vitákba, ahol az ilyen kérdéseket vitatják, használd ezt az oldal védekezésként. Azért hoztuk létre. Osszad ahol tudod, hogy egyre több ember lássa tisztán a valóságot. Az oldalt folyamatosan frissítjük!

A kannabisz szabályozása: az egészségre, a biztonságra, a gazdaságra gyakorolt hatások

 

A felnőttkori kannabisz használat szabályozásának bevezetése nem jár együtt a kannabisz serdülők általi használatának jelentős emelkedésével:

National Center for Education Statistics, Marijuana Use and Illegal Drug Availability, May 2021

Trends in youth cannabis use across cannabis legalization: Data from the COMPASS prospective cohort study, Preventive Medicine Reports, 2021

Recreational marijuana legalization and adolescent use of marijuana, tobacco, alcohol. Journal of Adolescent Health, 2020

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Prescription Opioid Misuse and Use of Alcohol and Other Substances Among High School Students — Youth Risk Behavior Survey, United States, 2019, 2020

Marijuana legalization and prevalence among adolescents, American Journal of Public Health, 2020

National Institutes on Drug Abuse, December 17, 2018 press release

Colorado Division of Criminal Justice, Impacts of Marijuana Legalization in Colorado, 2018

Adolescent marijuana use, marijuana-related perceptions, and use of other substances before and after initiation of retail marijuana sales in Colorado (2013-2015), Prevention Science, 2018

Marijuana use and related health care encounters in Colorado before and after retail legalization, International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 2018

“Colorado teen use hasn’t spiked,” Westword, June 21, 2018

Comments from Colorado Gov. John Hickenlooper, April 9, 2018

Comments from Larry Wolk, Chief Medical Officer of the Colorado Department of Public Health, October 23, 2017

Adolescent marijuana use and perceived ease of access before and after recreational marijuana implementation in Colorado, Substance Use & Misuse, 2017

Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Monitoring Health Concerns Related to Marijuana in Colorado, 2017

Lessons learned after three years of legalized, recreational marijuana: The Colorado experience, Preventive Medicine, 2017

Marijuana use among young people in an era of policy change: what does recent evidence tell us?, The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 2016

Oregon Health Authority, Marijuana use, attitudes and health effects in Oregon, 2016

Adolescents’ Ease of Access to Marijuana Before and After Legalization of Marijuana in Washington State, 2016

Influence of legal status on the uptake of cannabis in young people, Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 2016

 

A kannabisz kereskedelmi egységek alapítása nincs összefüggésben a bűncselekmények fellendülésével:

Not in my backyard? Not so fast. The effect of marijuana legalization on neighborhood crime, Regional Science and Urban Economics, 2019

Marijuana legalization and crime clearance rates: Testing proponent assertions in Colorado and Washington state, Police Quarterly, 2018

Going to pot: The impact of dispensary closures on crime. Journal of Urban Economics, 2017

Exploring the ecological association between crime and medical marijuana dispensaries, Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 2012

 

Az orvosi kannabiszhoz való hozzáférésről szóló törvénykezések nincsenek összefüggésben a forgalom biztonságára gyakorolt káros hatásokkal:

An examination of relationships between cannabis legalization and fatal motor vehicle and pedestrian-involved crashes, Traffic Injury Prevention, 2020

Marijuana medicalization and motor vehicle fatalities: A synthetic control group approach, Journal of Experimental Criminology, 2018.

US Traffic Fatalities, 1985-2014, and Their Relationship to Medical Marijuana Laws, Journal of the American Public Health Association, 2016

State medical marijuana laws and the prevalence of opioids detected among fatally injured drivers, American Journal of Public Health, 2016

 

A felnőttek kannabisz fogyasztását lehetővé tevő törvények általában kevés változást okoztak a közlekedésbiztonság terén, habár a legújabb tanulmányok kevésbé konzisztens eredményeket hoztak:

Marijuana legalization and rates of crashing under the influence of tetrahydrocannabinol and alcohol, The American Surgeon, 2021

Association of recreational cannabis laws in Colorado and Washington state with changes in traffic fatalities, 2005-2017, JAMA Internal Medicine, 2020

Fatal crashes in the 5 years after recreational marijuana legalization in Colorado and Washington, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2019

Early Evidence on Recreational Marijuana Legalization and Traffic Fatalities, National Bureau of Economic Research, 2018

MyNews4.com. “Nevada traffic deaths dropped 10 percent in first year of recreational marijuana,” June 29, 2018

Comments from Larry Wolk, Chief Medical Officer of the Colorado Department of Public Health, October 23, 2017

Crash fatality rates after recreational marijuana legalization in Washington and Colorado, The American Journal of Public Health, 2017

The Marijuana Policy Gap and the Path Forward, Congressional Research Service, 2017

Marijuana Legalization Hasn’t Increased Traffic Fatalities In Oregon, Oregon Public Broadcasting, March 9, 2017

 

A kannabisz szabályozása nincs káros hatással a munkahelyi teljesítményre vagy a biztonságra:

Does marijuana legalization affect workplace capacity? Evidence from workers’ compensation benefits, National Bureau of Economic Research, 2021

Systemic review of cannabis use and risk of occupational injury, Substance Use and Misuse, 2020

Medical marijuana and workers’ compensation claiming, Health Economics, 2020

National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Committee’s Conclusions, 2017

Economic Self-Sufficiency Policy Research Institute, Marijuana decriminalization and labor market outcomes, 2016

The Impact of Medical Marijuana Laws on the Labor Supply and Health of Older Adults: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study, National Bureau of Economic Research, 2016

The effect of medical marijuana on sickness absence. Health Economics, 2016

 

A kannabisz szabályozása csökkenő alkoholfogyasztással jár:

Helping settle the marijuana and alcohol debate: Evidence from scanner data. SSRN Working Paper, 2017

Time.com. “Legal weed is hurting the beer business.” December 6, 2016

 

A kannabisz szabályozása az adóbevételek növekedésével és a munkahelyteremtéssel jár:

Marijuana Policy Project, Marijuana Tax Revenue in States that Regulate Marijuana for Adult Use, May 2021

Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy, “State and local cannabis tax revenue jumps 58%, surpassing $3 billion in 2020,” March 2021

The Center Square, “Colorado sold more than $187 million in legal marijuana in January,” March 2021

Leafly.com/Whitney Economics, Jobs Report 2021, February 2021

Portland Press Herald, “Marijuana has grown to become Maine’s most valuable crop,” December 8, 2020

Marijuana Business Daily, “U.S. cannabis industry employment estimates: 2019-2024,” July 28, 2020

“States’ legal cannabis markets see strong growth amid COVID-19 disruptions,” NewFrontierData.com, July 19, 2020

“Cannabis Jobs Report: Legal cannabis now supports 243,700 full-time American jobs,” Leafly.com, February 7, 2020

CNBC.com, “Cannabis jobs pay 11% more than the US median salary, and demand is up 76%,” 2019

“Cannabis, marijuana, weed, pot? Just call it a job machine,” New York Times, April 25, 2019

New study: How recreational marijuana impacts home values, April 9, 2019

Leafly.com/Whitney Economics, Cannabis Jobs In America: 2019, March 2019

Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy, Taxing Cannabis, January 23, 2019

State of Oregon: Office of Economic Analysis, Oregon Economic and Revenue Forecast, 2018

The effect of marijuana dispensary openings on housing prices, Contemporary Economic Policy, 2018

Marijuana Business Daily. “Oregon tax revenue hits record high,” August 28, 2018

Marijuana Business Daily. “Cannabis industry supports up to 160,000 full-time jobs, with more growth on the horizon.” June 4, 2018

ZipRecuiter.com, Will cannabis job growth continue to outpace tech job growth?, 2018

The Economic Effects of the Marijuana Industry in Colorado, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Denver, Oklahoma City, Omaha, 2018

Nevada marijuana sales surpass $1 million per day in first six months, February 23, 2018

Leafly.com, Cannabis jobs count: Legal marijuana supports 149,304 Americans, 2017

Leafly.com, Washington tops $1.1 billion in cannabis sales at 9-month mark,” 2017

Forbes.com, Nevada’s recreational market hits $38 million, soars past Colorado, December 2017

Las Vegas Review Journal, Nevada recreational marijuana sales reach $33M in August, 2017

Contact high: The external effects of retail marijuana establishments on house prices, Real Estate Economics, 2017

US News and World Report, “Milestoned: Colorado Pot Tax Revenue Surpasses $500M,” 2017

The effect of legalizing retail marijuana on housing values: Evidence from Colorado, University of Mississippi working paper series, 2016

Drug Policy Alliance, What We Know About Marijuana Legalization in Colorado, Washington, Alaska, Oregon and Washington, DC, 2016

A kannabisz szabályozása és a tizenéves fiatalok kannabiszhasználat közötti kapcsolat

Az orvosi kannabisz hozzáférésről szóló törvények és a felnőtkori használatra vonatkozó törvények elfogadását követően nem tapasztalható jelentős növekedés a serdülők közt önmaguk által bejelentett kannabiszfogyasztás illetően:

National Center for Education Statistics, Marijuana Use and Illegal Drug Availability, May 2021

Medical marijuana laws (MMLs) and dispensary provisions not associated with higher odds of adolescent marijuana or heavy marijuana use: A 46 State Analysis, 1991-2015, Substance Abuse, 2021

Trends in youth cannabis use across cannabis legalization: Data from the COMPASS prospective cohort study, Preventive Medicine Reports, 2021

Post-legalization changes in marijuana use in a sample of young California adults, Addictive Behaviors, 2021

Recreational marijuana legalization and adolescent use of marijuana, tobacco, alcohol. Journal of Adolescent Health, 2020

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Prescription Opioid Misuse and Use of Alcohol and Other Substances Among High School Students — Youth Risk Behavior Survey, United States, 2019, 2020

US Department of Health and Human Services, Key Substance Use and Mental Health Indicators in the United States: Results from the 2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2020

Marijuana legalization and prevalence among adolescents, American Journal of Public Health, 2020

Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration, Key Substance Use and Mental Health Indicators in the United States: Results from the 2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2019

National Institutes on Drug Abuse, December 17, 2018 press release

 

A fiatalok hozzáférése a kannabiszhoz országosan csökken:

Trends in perceived access to marijuana among adolescents in the United States: 2002-2015, Journal of Studies of Alcohol and Drugs, 2017

United States Centers for Disease Control, National Estimates of Marijuana Use and Related Indicators – National Survey on Drug Use and Health, United States, 2002-2014, 2016

 

A fiatalok problémás kannabiszhasználatának aránya az elmúlt két évtized nagyobb felében csökkent:

Adolescent treatment admissions for marijuana following recreational legalization in Colorado and Washington

Declining Prevalence of Marijuana Use Disorders Among Adolescents in the United States, 2002 to 2013

Recent Trends in the Prevalence of Marijuana Use and Associated Disorders in the United States

 

Az orvosi kannabisz törvények elfogadása semmilyen téren nincs ok-okozati összefüggésben a fiatalok kannabisz használatával:

Early evidence of the impact of cannabis legalization on cannabis use, cannabis use disorder, and the use of other substances: Findings from state policy evaluations, The American Journal of Drugs and Alcohol Abuse, 2019

A quasi-experimental evaluation of marijuana policies and youth marijuana use, The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 2019

Has the legalisation of medical and recreational cannabis use in the USA affected the prevalence of cannabis use and cannabis use disorders? Current Addiction Reports

Medical marijuana laws and adolescent marijuana use in the United States: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Addiction, 2018

Medical marijuana availability, price, and product variety, and adolescent’s marijuana use, Journal of Adolescent Health, 2018

U.S. epidemiology of cannabis use and associated problems, Neuropsychopharmacology, 2017

Medical marijuana laws and adolescent use of marijuana and other substances: Alcohol, cigarettes, prescription drugs, and other illicit drugs. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2017

Impact of medical marijuana laws on state-level marijuana use by age and gender, 2004-2013, Prevention Science, 2017

Cannabis use and cannabis use disorders among youth in the United States, 2002-2014, Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 2017

Loose regulation of medical marijuana programs associated with higher rates of adult marijuana use but not cannabis use disorder, Addiction, 2017

The design of medical marijuana laws and adolescent use and heavy use of marijuana: Analysis of 45 states from 1991 to 2011, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2017

State-level medical marijuana laws, marijuana use and perceived availability of marijuana among the general U.S. population, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2016

Prevalence of marijuana use does not differentially increase among youth after states pass medical marijuana laws: Commentary on and reanalysis of US National Survey on Drug Use in Households data 2002-2011, International Journal on Drug Policy, 2016

Medical marijuana laws and adolescent marijuana use in the USA from 1991 to 2014: results from annual, repeated cross-sectional surveys, Lancet Psychiatry, 2015

The Impact of State Medical Marijuana Legislation on Adolescent Marijuana Use, Journal of Adolescent Health, 2014

 

A felnőtkori használatra vonatkozó törvények elfogadása semmilyen téren nincs ok-okozati összefüggésben a fiatalok kannabisz használatával:

Association of marijuana laws with teen marijuana use: New estimates form the Youth Risk Behavior surveys, JAMA Pediatrics, 2019

Has cannabis use among youth increased after changes in its legal status? A commentary on use of Monitoring the Future for analysis of changes in state cannabis laws, Preventive Medicine, 2019

Trends and characteristics in marijuana use among public school students – King County, Washington, 2004-2016, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2019

Association of marijuana laws with teen marijuana use. JAMA Pediatrics, 2019

Colorado Division of Criminal Justice, Impacts of Marijuana Legalization in Colorado, 2018

Prevalence of cannabis use in youths after legalization in Washington state, JAMA Pediatrics, 2018

Adolescent marijuana use, marijuana-related perceptions, and use of other substances before and after initiation of retail marijuana sales in Colorado (2013-2015), Prevention Science, 2018

Marijuana use and related health care encounters in Colorado before and after retail legalization, International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 2018

“Colorado teen use hasn’t spiked,” Westword, June 21, 2018

Comments from Colorado Gov. John Hickenlooper, April 9, 2018

Comments from Larry Wolk, Chief Medical Officer of the Colorado Department of Public Health, October 23, 2017

Washington State Institute for Public policy, I-502 Evaluation and Cost-Benefit Analysis, 2017

“Following marijuana legalization, teen drug use is down in Colorado,” Washington Post, 2017

Adolescent marijuana use and perceived ease of access before and after recreational marijuana implementation in Colorado, Substance Use & Misuse, 2017

Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Monitoring Health Concerns Related to Marijuana in Colorado, 2017

Lessons learned after three years of legalized, recreational marijuana: The Colorado experience, Preventive Medicine, 2017

Marijuana use among young people in an era of policy change: what does recent evidence tell us?, The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 2016

Oregon Health Authority, Marijuana use, attitudes and health effects in Oregon, 2016

Adolescents’ Ease of Access to Marijuana Before and After Legalization of Marijuana in Washington State, 2016

Influence of legal status on the uptake of cannabis in young people, Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 2016

A kannabisz és az opioidok kapcsolata

A kannabiszhoz való hozzáférés az opioidok használatának és a visszaélések, az opioidokkal kapcsolatos kórházi ápolások, az opioidokkal összefüggő közlekedési halálesetek, az opioidokkal kapcsolatos kábítószer-kezelések és az opioidok okozta túladagolásos halálozások csökkenésével van összefüggésben

Opioid use in medical cannabis authorization adult patients from 2013 to 2018: Alberta, Canada, BMC Public Health, 2021

Cannabis use and nonfatal opioid overdose among patients enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment, Substance Use & Misuse, 2021

Association between county level cannabis dispensary counts and opioid related mortality rates in the United States: panel data study, BMJ, 2021

Opioid-prescribing in Canada following the legalization of cannabis: A clinical and economic time-series analysis, Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, 2021

Patient-reported outcomes in those consuming medical cannabis: a prospective longitudinal observational study in chronic pain patients, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, 2021

Prescribed medical cannabis in women with gynecologic malignancies: A single-institution survey-based study, Gynecologic Oncology Reports, 2020

Cannabis significantly reduces the use of prescription opioids and improves quality of life in authorized patients: Results of a large prospective study, Pain Medicine, 2020

A survey on the effect that medical cannabis has on prescription opioid medication usage for the treatment of chronic pain at three medical cannabis practices, Cureus, 2020

Prescribed medical cannabis in women with gynecologic malignancies: A single-institution survey-based study, Gynecologic Oncology Reports, 2020

Medical cannabis treatment for chronic pain: Outcomes and prediction of response, European Journal of Pain, 2020

Frequent cannabis use and cessation of injection of opioids, Vancouver, Canada, 2005-2018, American Journal of Public Health, 2020

Medical cannabis for the reduction of opioid dosage in the treatment of non-cancer chronic pain: a systematic review, Systematic Reviews, 2020

Medical cannabis for the management of pain and quality of life in chronic pain patients: A prospective observational study, Pain Medicine, 2020

State medical cannabis laws associated with reduction in opioid prescriptions by orthopedic surgeons in Medicare Part D cohort, Journal of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, 2020

Prescription opioid distribution after the legalization of recreational marijuana in Colorado, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2020

Evaluating the co-use of opioids and cannabis for pain among current users using hypothetical purchase tasks, Journal of Psychopharmacology, 2020

The efficacy of medical marijuana in the treatment of cancer-related pain, Journal of Palliative Medicine, 2020

Matched pilot study examining cannabis-based dronabinol for acute pain following traumatic injury, Trauma Surgery & Acute Care, 2020

The impact of cannabis access laws on opioid prescribing, Journal of Health Economics, 2019

Frequency of cannabis and illicit opioid use among people who use drugs and report chronic pain: A longitudinal analysis, PLOS One

“The effects of cannabis laws on opioid use, International Journal of Drug Policy, 2019

Evaluation of the effects of CBD hemp extract on opioid use and quality of life indicators in chronic pain patients: a prospective cohort study, Postgraduate Medicine, 2019

Substitution of marijuana for opioids in a national survey of US adults, PLOS One

Medical cannabis: Effects on opioid and benzodiazepines requirements for pain control, The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 2019

Reduced urinary opioid levels from pain management patients associated with marijuana use, Pain Management, 2019

Association between cannabis laws and opioid prescriptions among privately insured adults in the US, Preventive Medicine, 2019

Impact of medical marijuana legalization on opioid use, chronic opioid use, and high risk opioid use, Journal of General Internal Medicine, 2019

Medical marijuana laws and their effect on opioid-related morality, Economics Bulletin, 2019

Opioid dose reduction and pain control with medical cannabis, Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2018

The impact of cannabis access laws on opioid prescribing, University of Alabama Legal Studies Research Paper No. 3266629, 2018

Perspectives on cannabis as a substitute for opioid analgesics, Pain Management, 2019

Medical cannabis legalization and opioid prescriptions: Evidence of US Medicaid enrollees during 1993-2014, Addiction, 2018

The effect of medical cannabis dispensaries on opioid and heroin overdose mortality, SSRN white paper, 2018

Patterns of medicinal cannabis use, strain analysis, and substitution effect among patients with migraine, headache, arthritis, and chronic pain in a medicinal cannabis cohort, The Journal of Headache and Pain, 2018

Recreational marijuana legalization and prescription opioids received by Medicaid enrollees, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2018

Self-reported effectiveness and safety of Trokie lozenges: A standardized formulation for the buccal delivery of cannabis extracts, Frontiers in Neuroscience, 2018

Preliminary data from the largest national longitudinal medical cannabis patient study in Canada, May 1, 2018

Association of medical and adult-use marijuana laws with opioid prescribing for Medicaid enrollees, JAMA Internal Medicine, 2018

Minnesota Department of Health, Intractable Pain Patients in the Minnesota Medical Cannabis Program: Experience of Enrollees During the First Five Months, 2018

Older Adults’ Use of Medical Marijuana for Chronic Pain: A Multisite Community-Based Survey, Data presented at the 2018 annual meeting of the American Geriatrics Society, May 2018

Do medical marijuana laws reduce addictions and deaths related to pain killers? Journal of Health Economics, 2018

Epidemiological characteristics, safety and efficacy of medical cannabis in the elderly, European Journal of Internal Medicine, 2018

Recreational cannabis legalization and opioid-related deaths in Colorado, 2000-2015, American Journal of Public Health, 2017

Association between medical cannabis and prescription opioid use in chronic pain patients: A preliminary cohort study, PLOS One, 2017

The effects of marijuana dispensaries on adverse opioid outcomes. SSRN Working Paper, 2017

Medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and opioid pain reliever, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2017

The use of cannabis in response to the opioid crisis: A review of the literature, Nursing Outlook, 2017

Perceptions of the use of medical marijuana in the treatment of pain following musculoskeletal trauma, Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 2017

State medical marijuana laws and the prevalence of opioids detected among fatally injured drivers, American Journal of Public Health, 2016

A pilot study assessing the impact of medical marijuana on executive function, Frontiers in Pharmacology, 2016

Medical Cannabis Use Is Associated With Decreased Opiate Medication Use in a Retrospective Cross-Sectional Survey of Patients With Chronic Pain, Journal of Pain, 2016

The Effect of Medicinal Cannabis on Pain and Quality-of-Life Outcomes in Chronic Pain: A Prospective Open-label Study, The Clinical Journal of Pain, 2016

Do Medical Marijuana Laws Reduce Addictions and Deaths Related to Pain Killers?, NBER Working Paper No. 21345, 2015

Medical Cannabis Laws and Opioid Analgesic Overdose Mortality in the United States, 1999-2010, JAMA Internal Medicine, 2014

 

A kannabiszhoz való hozzáférés a vényköteles gyógyszerhez köthető aktivitások általános csökkenésével jár

A randomized trial of medical cannabis in patients with stage IV cancers to assess feasibility, dose requirements, impact on pain and opioid use, safety, and overall patient satisfaction, Supportive Care in Cancer, 2021

Prolonged medical cannabis treatment is associated with quality of life improvement and reductions of analgesic medication consumption in chronic pain patients, Frontiers in Pharmacology, 2021

Cannabidiol as a treatment for chronic pain: A survey of patients’ attitudes and perspectives. Journal of Pain Research, 2021

Substituting cannabidiol for opioids and pain medications among individuals with fibromyalgia: A large online survey. Journal of Pain, 2021

The impact of medical and recreational marijuana laws on opioid prescribing in employer‐sponsored health insurance, Health Economics, 2021

Mixed methods study of potential therapeutic benefits from medical cannabis for patients in Florida, Complimentary Therapies in Medicine, 2021

The role of cannabis in pain management among people living with HIV who use drugs: A qualitative study, Drug and Alcohol Review, 2021

The impact of light cannabis on liberalization of prescription drugs, Journal of Health Economics, 2020

Medical marijuana laws and medical and non-medical prescription stimulant use among a nationally representative sample of US adults: Potential spillover effects by sexual identity and gender, International Journal of Drug Policy, 2020

Clinical conditions and prescription drug utilization among early medical marijuana registrants in Florida, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 2020

Using recreational cannabis to treat insomnia: Evidence from over-the-counter sleep aid sales in Colorado, Complimentary Therapies in Medicine, 2019

Reduction of benzodiazepine use in patients prescribed medical cannabis, Cannabis and cannabinoid Research, 2019

Pills to pot: Observational analyses of cannabis substitution among medical cannabis users with chronic pain, Journal of Pain, 2019

State marijuana laws and opioid overdose mortality, Injury Epidemiology, 2019

Association between US state medical cannabis laws and opioid prescribing in the Medicare Part D population, JAMA Internal Medicine, 2018

Preliminary evaluation of the efficacy, safety, and costs associated with the treatment of chronic pain with medical cannabis, Mental Health Clinician, 2018

Effects of legal access to cannabis on Schedule II-V prescriptions, Journal of Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine, 2017

The effects of medical marijuana laws on prescribed opioids and other prescription drugs, SSRN Working Paper, 2017

Medical Marijuana Laws May Be Associated With A Decline In The Number Of Prescriptions For Medicaid Enrollees, Health Affairs, 2017

Medical Marijuana Laws Reduce Prescription Medication Use In Medicare Part D, Health Affairs, 2016

 

A kannabisz alkalmazása mint kiegészítő  kezelés fokozza az opioidok fájdalomcsillapító tulajdonságait

Within-subject, double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled evaluation of the combined effects of the cannabinoid dronabinol and the opioid hydromorphone in a human laboratory model, Neuropyschopharmacology, 2021

A cost-effective model for adjunctive smoked cannabis in the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain, Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2019

Medicinal properties of cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids in cannabis, and benefits in migraine, headache and pain: An update on current evidence and cannabis science, Headache, 2018

Impact of co-administration of oxycodone and smoked cannabis on analgesia and abuse liability, Neuropsychopharmacology, 2018

Emerging evidence for cannabis’ role in opioid use disorder, Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2018

Cannabinoid-opioid interaction in chronic pain, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2011

 

A betegek gyakran használnak kannabiszt más szabályozott anyagok, köztük vényköteles gyógyszerek, alkohol és dohány helyettesítésére

Utilization of medicinal cannabis for pain by individuals with spinal cord injury, Spinal Cord Series and Cases, 2020

The impact of cannabis access laws on opioid prescribing, Journal of Health Economics, 2019

A cross-sectional examination of choice and behavior of veterans with access to free medicinal cannabis, The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 2019

The safety and efficacy of medical cannabis in fibromyalgia, Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2019

Marijuana as a substitute for prescription medications: A qualitative study, Substance Use & Misuse, 2019

Medical cannabis: effects on opioid and benzodiazepine requirements for pain control, Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 2019

Multiple Sclerosis and use of medical cannabis: A retrospective review evaluating symptom outcomes, Neurology, 2019

Pills to pot: observational analyses of cannabis substitution among medical cannabis users with chronic pain, The Journal of Pain, 2019

Cannabis use behaviors and prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in a cohort of Canadian medicinal cannabis users, Journal of Psychiatric Research, 2019

Medical cannabis patterns of use and substitution for opioids & other pharmaceutical drugs, alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substances; results from a cross-sectional survey of authorized patients, Harm Reduction Journal, 2019

Reduction of benzodiazepine use in patients prescribed medical cannabis, Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2019

Medical cannabis users’ comparisons between medical cannabis and mainstream medicine, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 2019

Prospective analysis of safety and efficacy of medical cannabis in large unselected population of patients with cancer, European Journal of Internal Medicine, 2018

Effect of adding medical cannabis treatment to analgesic treatment in patients with low back pain related to fibromyalgia: An observational cross-over single center study, Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, 2018

Cannabis use is associated with lower odds of prescription opioid analgesic use among HIV-infected individuals with chronic pain, Substance Abuse & Misuse, 2018

Preferences for medical marijuana over prescription medications among persons living with chronic conditions, The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Care, 2017

Perceptions of the use of medical marijuana in the treatment of pain following musculoskeletal trauma, Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 2017

Rationale for cannabis-based interventions in the opioid overdose crisis, Harm Reduction Journal, 2017

Aclara Research, Cannabis, Prescription Drugs, and Opioid Usage: Study Highlights, 2017

Survey: Nearly half of people who use cannabidiol products stop taking traditional medicine, Forbes.com, 2017

Cannabis as a substitute for opioid-based pain medication: patient self-report, Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2017

Substitution of medical cannabis for pharmaceutical agents for pain, anxiety, and sleep, Journal of Psychopharmacology, 2017

Medical cannabis access, use, and substitution for prescription opioids and other substances: A survey of authorized medical cannabis patients, International Journal of Drug Policy, 2017

Cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs – a cross-sectional study, Journal of Pain Research, 2017

Substituting cannabis for prescription drugs, alcohol and other substances among medical cannabis patients: The impact of contextual factors, Drug and Alcohol Review, 2015

Medical cannabis in Arizona: Patient characteristics, perceptions, and impressions of medical cannabis legalization. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 2015

 

A krónikus fájdalomban szenvedő betegek ritkábban élnek vissza kannabisszal mint az opioidokkal

Problematic use of prescription opioids and medicinal cannabis among patients suffering from chronic pain, Pain Medicine, 2016

 

A krónikus fájdalomtól szenvedő betegek kevésbé valószínű, hogy depressziósak lesznek a kannabisz használata során

Depression and anxiety among chronic pain patients receiving prescription opioids and medical marijuana, Journal of Affective Disorders, 2017

 

A kannabiszhasználat az opioidok használatának magasabb arányú retencióját eredményezi és enyhítheti az opioidok iránti vágyakozást

The association between cannabis use and outcome in pharmacological treatment for opioid use disorder, Harm Reduction Journal, 2021

Cannabis use is associated with reduced risk of exposure to fentanyl among people on opioid agonist therapy during a community-wide overdose crisis, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2020

Emerging evidence of cannabis’ role in opioid use disorder, Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2020

A pilot study of a medical cannabis – opioid reduction program, American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 2019

Cannabidiol for the reduction of cue-induced craving and anxiety in drug-abstinent individuals with heroin use disorder: A double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial, in The American Journal of Psychiatry , 2019

Emerging evidence for cannabis’ role in opioid use disorder, Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2018

High-intensity cannabis use is associated with retention in opioid agonist treatment: a longitudinal analysis, Addiction, 2018

Early phase in the development of cannabidiol as a treatment for addiction: Opioid relapse takes center stage, Neurotherapeutics, 2015

The effects of dronabinol during detoxification and the initiation of treatment with extended release naltrexone, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2015

Intermittent marijuana use is associated with improved retention in naltrexone treatment for opiate-dependence, American Journal of Addictions, 2009

Concurrent substance use and outcome in combined behavioral and naltrexone therapy for opiate dependence, The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 2009

Kannabisz és a „Kapudrog Elmélet”

A szakértők egyetértenek abban, hogy a kannabisz használata nem hozható összefüggésbe más tiltott anyagok használatával:

Is marijuana really a gateway drug? A nationally representative test of the marijuana gateway hypothesis using a propensity score matching design, Nature Communications, 2021

The Benjamin Center for Public Policy Initiatives at SUNY New Paltz University, The Marijuana Gateway Fallacy, 2017

Reassessing the marijuana gateway effect, Addiction, 2002

Report of the Special Senate Committee on Illegal Drugs, Cannabis: Our Position for a Canadian Public policy, 2002

National Academy of Sciences, Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base, 1999

 

A tiltott szereket fogyasztók többsége először alkohollal vagy dohányzással kísérletezett:

Prioritizing alcohol prevention: Establishing alcohol as the gateway drug and linking age of first drink with illicit drug use, The Journal of School Health, 2016

Relationship between substance initiation sequence and further substance use: A French nationwide prospective study

Birth cohorts analysis of adolescent cigarette smoking and subsequent marijuana and cocaine use

 

Statisztikailag az emberek túlnyomó többsége, akik kipróbálják a kannabiszt, nem folytatják más tiltott drogokkal, és jellemzően középkorukig abbahagyják a kannabisz használatot is:

US National Institute on Drug Abuse, “Is marijuana a gateway drug?” factsheet

Predictors of marijuana use among married couples: The influence of one’s spouse, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2007

 

Ahol a kannabisz jogilag hozzáférhető, a felnőttek általában más ellenőrzött anyagok használatának csökkenését jelentik. Ebben az értelemben úgy tűnik, hogy a kannabisz inkább potenciális „kilépő drogként” viselkedik, nem pedig állítólagos „belépőként”:

Rationale for cannabis-based interventions in the opioid overdose crisis, Harm Reduction Journal, 2017

Substitution of medical cannabis for pharmaceutical agents for pain, anxiety, and sleep, Journal of Psychopharmacology, 2017

Medical cannabis access, use, and substitution for prescription opioids and other substances: A survey of authorized medical cannabis patients, International Journal of Drug Policy, 2017

Cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs – a cross-sectional study, Journal of Pain Research, 2017

Substituting cannabis for prescription drugs, alcohol and other substances among medical cannabis patients: The impact of contextual factors, Drug and Alcohol Review, 2015

 

Klinikai körülmények között a kannabisz fogyasztása a kokain és az opiátok iránti vágy csökkenésével jár:

Intentional cannabis use to reduce crack cocaine in a Canadian setting: A longitudinal analysis, Addictive Behaviors, 2017

The effects of dronabinol during detoxification and the initiation of treatment with extended release naltrexone, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2015

Does cannabis use predict poor outcome for heroin-dependent patients on maintenance treatment? A review of past findings, and more evidence against, Addiction, 2003

Therapeutic use of cannabis by crack addicts in Brazil, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 1999

Az alkohol károsabb, mint a ma ismert legtöbb illegális kábítószer!

A The Global Commission On Drug Policy nemzetközi bizottság, amelynek neves szakembergárdájában magasrangú kormányzati vezetők is helyet foglalnak, 2019-es, nemrég nyilvánosságra hozott jelentése arra mutat rá, hogy a jelenleg illegálisnak minősülő legtöbb kábítószer egyike sem annyira káros összességében véve illetve a társadalomra gyakorolt negatív hatásukat tekintve (ide értve a bűnözést is), mint az alkohol. Amennyiben kizárólag a társadalmi hatást vesszük alapul, akkor az alkohol az egyértelmű listavezető.

Ennek a független nemzetközi szervezetnek céljai között szerepel, hogy a jelenlegi, hagyományokra és különböző lobbi tevékenységekre épülő kábítószer besorolások és úgy egyáltalán a drogszabályozás más megvilágítást kapjon, azaz tudományos tényekre épüljön.

Mindamellett, hogy teljesen életszerű az elképzelés, jelenleg ez a törekvés szinte lehetetlen küldetésnek látszik, egyrészt évszázados szokásokkal lenne szükség azonnal szembe menni, másrészt pedig komoly gazdasági cunami indulna el, amennyiben az alkoholt ugyanolyan vagy veszélyesebb kábítószernek minősítenék, mint például az ecstasy-t.

A drogok egyén és társadalom károsító hatásuk szerint grafikon:

Drog vagy narkó?

Nagy a fejetlenség a fogalmak terén Magyarországon ezért a következő ábra segítségével szeretnénk szemléltetni, hogy az egyes ismertebb drogok (mindenfajta anyagot és vegyületet jelent, ami egy élő szervezet működését befolyásolja (tehát bioaktív), a tápanyagokat kivéve) milyen osztályokba sorolhatók a tudatra gyakorolt hatásuk szempontjából.

Tekintsük meg a ma is legális alkohol helyét, ami a heroinnal együtt a narkotikumok csoportjában szerepel, ezzel szemben a legkevésbé ártalmas hallucinogének mind illegálisak!

Az elterjedtebb drogokat pirossal emeltük ki a könnyebb megtalálásuk érdekében!
Az elterjedtebb drogokat pirossal emeltük ki a könnyebb megtalálásuk érdekében!

Forrás: Wikipedia

Hogyan lett illegális a kannabisz?